By Hanspeter Kriesi, Edgar Grande, Martin Dolezal, Dr Marc Helbling, Professor Dominic Höglinger, Professor Swen Hutter, Professor Bruno Wüest
Analyzes the consequences of globalization at the restructuring of politics in Western Europe over the last 3 many years.
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Extra info for Political Conflict in Western Europe
Education thereby becomes a more important source for politically relevant attitudes, not only in the domain of ethnic relations. On the other hand, as we have argued previously and as we shall again demonstrate in this volume, the political actors who mobilize the globalization losers mainly do so in cultural and political, and not in economic, terms. Most importantly, the new groups of ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ of globalization created by these three types of conflict are not ideologically predefined.
The presence of such challengers, in turn, is greatly facilitated by proportional representation (PR) electoral systems. In majoritarian systems, it is more likely that the new conflicts will give rise to the (temporary or partial) transformation of the mainstream parties, as the British experience graphically illustrates 24 Theory and methods (Kriesi and Frey 2008b). Once they have entered the system, the subsequent success of the challengers depends on a combination of the size of the potential ‘losers’ in a given country, the characteristics of the party itself, and its electoral strategies, as well as its electoral opportunity structure (Grande 2008; van der Brug et al.
These new risks, in turn, are expected to decrease individuals’ feeling of economic security and to lead them to demand more social protection as compensation. However, the economic risks (and opportunities) are not expected to increase to the same extent for all members of advanced welfare states. The research on the international political economy uses two distinct macro-economic models to identify the distributional effects of globalization. These models emphasize either comparative advantages of certain industries and sectors (exposed tradable versus sheltered non-tradable industries/sectors), or relative factor endowments (scarce versus abundantly available factors).