Download Pitch Determination of Speech Signals: Algorithms and by Dr.-Ing.-habil. Wolfgang Hess (auth.) PDF

By Dr.-Ing.-habil. Wolfgang Hess (auth.)

Pitch (i.e., primary frequency FO and primary interval TO) occupies a key place within the acoustic speech sign. The prosodic details of an utterance is predominantly decided by means of this parameter. The ear is extra delicate to adjustments of basic frequency than to adjustments of different speech sign parameters by way of an order of significance. the standard of vocoded speech is largely encouraged via the standard and faultlessness of the pitch degree­ ment. accordingly the significance of this parameter necessitates utilizing reliable and trustworthy size equipment. initially look the duty seems basic: one simply has to observe the funda­ psychological frequency or interval of a quasi-periodic sign. For a few purposes, notwithstanding, the duty of pitch selection needs to be counted one of the such a lot tough difficulties in speech research. 1) In precept, speech is a nonstationary approach; the non permanent place of the vocal tract could swap suddenly at any time. This results in drastic diversifications within the temporal constitution of the sign, even among next pitch classes, and assuming a quasi-periodic sign is frequently faraway from reasonable. 2) as a result of flexibility of the human vocal tract and the wide range of voices, there exist a large number of attainable temporal buildings. Narrow-band formants at low harmonics (especially on the moment or 3rd harmonic) are an extra resource of trouble. three) For an arbitrary speech sign uttered by way of an unknown speaker, the elemental frequency can differ over various virtually 4 octaves (50 to 800 Hz).

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Voiced fricatives and other sounds with mixed excitation 23 This model is not satisfactory if one intends to deal with simultaneous periodic and noise excitation since the vocal tract transfer function is different for the voiced and the voiceless components due to the different place of excitation. The only way to handle this fact in the present model is to group the difference of the two transfer functions into the source spectrum of the voiceless path. This may be a clumsy approach if phenomena of mixedexcitation mode are to be handled.

A value of zero can be assigned to all the coefficients gi except go and all but one of the coefficients d i • If we apply the z-transform to (2. lla) reads as follows. , converts X(z) into X(z)z-q. lla) by z-n and sum up over all values of n from zero to infinity, we obtain the z-transform on both sides of the equation. 9) as the quotient of Y(z) and X(z). 2. Terminology. 10). 7] is responsible for the poles of H(z), whereas the nonrecursive part is responsible for the zeros. 14-) where 1m {H(z)} and Re {H(z)} are the imaginary and the real parts of the complex transfer function, respectively.

This condition is fulfilled if and only if the poles and zeros of the filter transfer function are either situated in z =0 or symmetrically with respect to the unit circle. Since poles are not permitted outside the unit circle for reasons of stability, it is clear that all the poles must be located in z =0, and that the linear-phase filter is necessarily nonrecursive. 20) If there are additional zeros on the unit circle, the phase response of the filter is piecewise linear; it contains a jump of mOll whenever a zero of order m on the unit circle is crossed.

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