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Offers a complete evaluation of the physics of dense Z pinches. Discusses fresh experimental effects in addition to the working platforms of the most sorts of electric drivers. DLC: Pinch impact (Physics)
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Extra resources for Physics of high-density Z-pinch plasmas
Indeed, it turns out that by generalizing the notion of “mixture” somewhat it is possible to express an arbitrary state of the N -boson system in terms of fully (simply) Bose-condensed states: see Steel et al. 1999. We will not need this generalization in this book. When we are dealing with simple BEC, it is convenient to denote the single macroscopic eigenvalue of the density matrix by the symbol N0 (t) and call it the “condensate number” (so that the ratio N0 /N is the “condensate fraction”).
Apart from this the nature of the container appears to have very little eﬀect on the behavior of either helium isotope; a reason for this, apart from the very short range of the potential, is that while liquid helium is very compressible compared to a typical solid (the velocity of sound is only ∼250–350 m/sec), the interactions are still strong enough to resist any substantial change in the density proﬁle from a constant. 13 I now turn to the diagnostic techniques used to study liquid helium. First, one can do a variety of thermodynamic measurements (speciﬁc heat, sound velocity, thermal expansion, .
G. Nb-Zr). The crystalline members of this class generally have relatively simple and fairly isotropic structures. ) described at least qualitatively by the Bloch–Sommerfeld picture, that is, the model of independent electrons obeying Fermi statistics and moving in the periodic potential of the atomic ions, and thus described by the familiar energy bands; similarly, in the amorphous case a picture of independent electrons moving in a static random potential is qualitatively valid. 1). Thirdly, we can deﬁne a “Fermi energy” (chemical potential at T = 0) which in essentially all cases of interest turns out to be of the order of 1–10 eV; thus, at all temperatures below melting the electrons are strongly degenerate and their low-energy behavior is determined entirely by the properties of the states in a narrow energy region (width ∼kB T ) close to the Fermi surface.