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By D. A. Kharkevich (auth.), Professor Dr. Dimitry A. Kharkevich (eds.)

D.A. KHARKEVICH The heritage of the examine of ganglionic components starts off with the paper of LANGLEY and DICKINSON (1889), who validated the power of nicotine to dam the neurones within the improved cervical ganglion. This was once a substantial discovery because the authors ascertained that impulses have been transmitted from pre- to postganglionic neurones within the autonomic ganglia. at the same time they indicated the potential of pharmaco­ logical impression upon interneuronal transmission in autonomic ganglia. the assumption of ganglionic receptors in particular delicate to nicotine logically. Later, LANGLEY (1905, 1906) thought of the matter of receptors with admire to neuro-effector synapses. it's amazing that he was once one of many first to place ahead the speculation of chemical mediation of excitation (" ... the fearful impulse aren't cross from nerve to muscle via an electrical discharge, yet by means of the secretion of a distinct substance on the finish of the nerve": LANGLEY, 1906, p. 183). additionally, LANGLEY JOHN N. LANGLEY (1852-1926) D.A. KHARKEVICH 2 and his collaborators controlled to outline the topography of autonomic ganglia extra accurately through nicotine. it's going to be pointed out that it was once he who brought the phrases "autonomic worried approach" and "parasympathetic anxious system".

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Such a direct inhibitory effect has been observed in pelvic ganglia and in the ganglia of the urinary bladder (DE GROAT and SAUM, 1972), and also in the ganglia of the myenteric plexus (HIRST and McKIRDY, 1974; WOOD, 1975). The inhibition is mediated by ex-adrenergic receptors thought to be located at a presynaptic site (HIRST and McKIRDY, 1974). It remains an open question whether this inhibition occurs in natural conditions. No direct inhibiton has been found in mammalian ciliary ganglion, which does not receive adrenergic fibres (MELNICHENKO and SKOK, 1969, 1970).

Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. : The influence of bulb ospinaI monoaminergic pathways on sympathetic nerve activity. J. Physiol. : Morphological and cytochemical observations on the postsynaptic membrane at motor end-plates and ganglionic synapses. Exp. Cell Res. : A study of the inferior mesenteric and pelvic ganglia of guineapigs with intracellular electrodes. J. Physiol. : Cholinergic mechanism in the release of catecholamines from intraganglionic inhibitory terminals. : Sympathetic ganglia normal and pathological.

J. Pharmacol. : Preliminary studies of the neurons of Auerbach's plexus using intracellular microelectrodes. Aust. J. Exp. BioI. Med. Sci. : An electrophysiological investigation of mammalian motor nerve terminals. J. Physiol. : The effects of thiamine tetrahydrofurfuril disulfide upon the movement of the isolated small intestine. J. Vitaminol. : Effect of magnesium and calcium ions on the release of acetylcholine. J. Physiol. : Preganglionic sympathetic activity in normal and in reserpine-treated cats.

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