By Lev P. Zonenshain(auth.)
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Extra resources for Paleogeodynamics: The Plate Tectonic Evolution of the Earth
Their contentof K, Ba, Rb is higherthanin MORB, whereastheir contentof Ti, Tr, Nb, Hf is lower. 4nNd ratioisthesameor lowerthanin MORB. Thus,geochemicalandothercharacteristics underlinethe influence of substances (includingwater) coming from the subductionzone, or a so-calledsubductioncomponent. When diving with the Russiansubmersibles "Mir" in the Lau back-arcbasin (southwestern Pacific), scientistsfoundthat BABB makesup the baseof volcanic edifices,whereasthe sheet-flowMORB overlapsBABB duringa secondphaseof volcaniceruptions.
Sulphidedepositsformingin the "incipient"and"initial"typesof back-arc basins,where the influence of the continentalcrust and subductionzone is strong,containnot only sulfidesof copperand zinc, but of lead aswell. In the Bonin Basin, the Kuroko-typeof stratifiedoresare depositedin sedimentsnear the dacite dome. In thecalderaof oneof theandesite volcanoes in theBoninBasin,at a depthof 400 m, the contentof gold amountsto 142 g/t, and silver 150 g/t (Urabe, 1989). A continuous beltof hydrothermal springsliesalongtheValufaspreading ridgein theLau Basin.
The offshorepart of the passivemargin is mainly composedof shallow-water limestones. In theJurassic andCretaceous, a barrierreefwasformedalongtheAtlantic margin; it, like the entiremargin,progradedthroughtime oceanwards. Towardthe ocean,carbonate faciesgiveway to turbidiresequences of thecontinemalslopeandrise. Multichannelseismicprofilingrecordsoften showclinal forms,someof whichreflectthe progradation of the margin,while some may reflect eustaticsea-levelfluctuations. They areindicatedby positivemagneticanomalies.