By Djoni Darmawikarta
At the start built at IBM within the early Nineteen Seventies, SQL used to be formalized through the yank nationwide criteria Institute (ANSI) in 1986. for the reason that then the SQL usual has been revised seven occasions.
SQL involves an information definition language (DDL) and an information manipulation language (DML). The DDL is used to create, delete, and change the constitution of a desk and different database items. The DML is used to insert, retrieve, and replace facts in a desk or tables.
Many database owners enforce a model of SQL that isn't a hundred% compliant with the normal. they typically upload specified positive factors to their SQL, leading to an SQL dialect.
This ebook is for you in order to study SQL the simple approach. This e-book makes use of the unfastened version of the Oracle database to teach how SQL works.
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Additional info for Oracle SQL: A Beginner's Tutorial
14 will create a nut_product table with the following content. P_CODE -----3 6 5 P_NAME PRICE LAUNCH_DT --------------- ------ --------Nut 15 29-MAR-13 New Nut NULL NULL Super_Nut 30 30-MAR-13 To store a query output into an existing table, use this syntax. INSERT INTO existing_table AS SELECT ... 15 stores the query result in an existing table. 15, first you have to create a non_nut table by executing the following statement. 15 against this product table Chapter 3: Query Output P_CODE -----1 2 3 4 6 5 P_NAME PRICE LAUNCH_DT --------------- ------ --------Nail 10 31-MAR-13 Washer 15 29-MAR-13 Nut 15 29-MAR-13 Screw 25 30-MAR-13 New Nut NULL NULL Super_Nut 30 30-MAR-13 you will get a non_nut table with the following rows.
The new product table, with a row having s_code 5, now looks like the following. 9. This query joins the product table to itself. This kind of join is called a self-join. The syntax for the self join is as follows. column_y; Note that column_x and column_y are columns in the same table. p_code; Here are the output rows of the query, showing “Newer Nut” in the subst_name column of the third row. P_CODE -----1 2 3 4 5 6 P_NAME ---------Nail Washer Nut Screw Super_Nut New Nut SUBST_ -----NULL NULL 5 NULL NULL NULL SUBST_NAME ---------NULL NULL Super_Nut NULL NULL NULL 57 58 Oracle SQL: A Beginner's Tutorial Multiple Uses of A Table If a product can have more than one substitute, you need to store the product-substitute relationships in a separate table.
There are three subtypes of outer joins, LEFT, RIGHT, and FULL. The following points described each of these three types. All rows from the table on the left of the left outer join will be in the output whether or not there are matching rows from the table on its right. The syntax for the left outer join is as follows. column ... ; All rows form the table on the right of the right outer join will be in the output whether or not there are matching rows from the table on its left. The syntax for the right outer join is as follows.