By Patrick J. Sinko
Retail PDF with DRM removed
ISBN: 0781797667 | ISBN-13: 9780781797665 | eISBN: 1451158785 | eISBN-13: 9781451158786 | version: 6
Publication Date: March 2010
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Martin's actual Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences is taken into account the main entire textual content on hand at the program of the actual, chemical and organic rules within the pharmaceutical sciences. It is helping scholars, lecturers, researchers, and business pharmaceutical scientists use components of biology, physics, and chemistry of their paintings and examine. because the first version used to be released in 1960, the textual content has been and is still a required textual content for the center classes of Pharmaceutics, Drug supply, and actual Pharmacy. The 6th variation gains improved content material on drug supply, good oral dosage kinds, pharmaceutical polymers and pharmaceutical biotechnology, and up-to-date sections to hide advances in nanotechnology.
Read Online or Download Martin's Physical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (6th Edition / 50th Anniversary Edition) PDF
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Extra resources for Martin's Physical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (6th Edition / 50th Anniversary Edition)
Supercritical fluids are also considered a mesophase, in this case a state of matter that exists under high pressure and temperature and has properties that are intermediate between those of liquids and gases. Supercritical fluids will also be discussed later because of their increased utilization in pharmaceutical agent processing. THE GASEOUS STATE Owing to vigorous and rapid motion and resultant collisions, gas molecules travel in random paths and collide not only with one another but also with the walls of the container in which they are confined.
The equation contains additional approximations, for it assumes that the vapor behaves as an ideal gas and that the molar volume of the liquid is negligible with respect to that of the vapor. These are important approximations in light of the nonideality of real solutions. EXAMPLE 2–7 Application of the Clausius–Clapeyron Equation Compute the vapor pressure of water at 120◦ C. The vapor pressure p1 of water at 100◦ C is 1 atm, and ΔHv may be taken as 9720 cal/ mole for this temperature range. 303R T (2–16) or in natural logarithms, ΔHv 1 + constant (2–17) R T from which it is observed that a plot of the logarithm of the vapor pressure against the reciprocal of the absolute temperature results in a straight line, enabling one to compute the heat of vaporization of the liquid from the slope of the line.
This reversible change of state is the basic principle involved in the preparation of pharmaceutical aerosols. In such products, a drug is dissolved or suspended in a propellant, a material that is liquid under the pressure conditions existing inside the container but that forms a gas under normal atmospheric conditions. The container is so designed that, by depressing a valve, some of the drug–propellant mixture is expelled owing to the excess pressure inside the container. If the drug is nonvolatile, it forms a fine spray as it leaves the valve orifice; at the same time, the liquid propellant vaporizes off.