By Vladilen Letokhov
Fairly assorted difficulties could be lumped jointly below the overall time period 'laser regulate of atoms and molecules'. They contain the laser collection of atomic and molecular velocities for the aim of Doppler-free spectroscopy, laser regulate of the location and speed of atoms (i.e. laser trapping and cooling of atoms), and laser keep an eye on of atomic and molecular methods (ionization, dissociation) with a view of detecting unmarried atoms and molecules and especially setting apart isotopes and nuclear isomers. during the last many years the primary difficulties posed were effectively solved, and plenty of of them have developed remarkably within the next investigations of the overseas examine neighborhood. for instance, the answer of the matter of laser cooling and trapping of atoms has given start to the hot box of physics of ultracold mater, i.e. quantum atomic and molecular gases. The laser non-coherent keep watch over of uni-molecular methods have chanced on a fascinating extension within the box of laser coherent regulate of molecules. the concept that of laser keep watch over of positions has been effectively tested with microparticles (optical tweezers), simultaneously with investigations into atomic keep an eye on. The laser photo-ionization of molecules on surfaces has ended in the advance of novel recommendations of laser assisted mass spectrometry of macromolecules, etc. the purpose of this ebook is to check those issues from a unified or 'coherent' viewpoint. it is going to be helpful for lots of readers in quite a few fields of laser technology and its purposes.
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Additional info for Laser control of atoms and molecules
Indeed, the moduli of the recoil momentum for all three processes coincide in the reference frame of the atom at rest: ¯ |kem | = h ¯ |ksp | = h|kabs | = h ¯ ¯hω0 . 17) But in this case, as noted above, they must coincide in any other nonrelativistic reference frame as well. In connection with these remarks, one should emphasize specially the diﬀerence in transformation properties between the wave vector and the radiation frequency for the processes of interaction between a nonrelativistic atom and resonant radiation.
As a result, the eﬃcient saturated ampliﬁcation by the two-component medium in the laser acquires a narrow peak at the center of the absorption line (Fig. 5(b)), and the laser output power exhibits a narrow peak (Fig. 1). Particular emphasis was placed upon this essential feature 44 Laser control of atoms and molecules of infrared molecular transitions by Letokhov (1967) and Lisitsyn and Chebotayev (1968). There are two circumstances of importance for the application of this method in spectroscopy and in laser frequency stabilization.
The ﬁrst and the most fundamental eﬀect is the radiative broadening due to the spontaneous decay of an excited state (the half-width of the spectral line is Γ = γrad = γ). 5). The lifetime of an excited atomic or molecular state depends on the oscillator strength of the transition and the radiation wavelength. For electronic transitions of atoms and molecules in the visible region of the spectrum, 1/γrad 10−8 s. For metastable atomic and vibrational molecular levels, the radiative lifetime may be much longer, namely 1/γrad 10−1 –10−5 s.