By L. Bachus, A Custodio
Pumps are mostly encountered in and are necessary to the graceful working of many business complexes. Mechanical engineers getting into usually have little functional event of pumps and their difficulties, and wish to accumulate an realizing of the layout, operation and acceptable use of pumps, plus the way to diagnose faults and placed them correct. This ebook tackles these kinds of facets in a readable demeanour, drawing at the authors' lengthy adventure of lecturing and writing on centrifugal pumps for commercial audiences.
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Additional info for Know and Understand Centrifugal Pumps
The focus should be on resolving cavitation problems by increasing the external pressure on the fluid or decreasing its vapor pressure. The external pressure could be increased by: 9 Increasing the pressure at the pump suction. 9 Reducing the energy losses (friction) at the entrance to the pump. 9 Using a larger pump. The vapor pressure of the fluid is decreased by: 9 Lowering the temperature of the fluid. 9 Changing to a fluid with a lower vapor pressure. At times, simply removing aspirated air venting the pump will have the same effect.
The impeller is one of the most important efficiency factors. Affecting the impeller's behavior are: 1. The impeller velocity. 2. The impeller diameter. 3. The number of blades on the impeller. 4. The diameter of the eye of the impeller. 5. The thickness of the impeller. 6. The pitch (angle) of the blades. Factors t h a t affect the efficiency 1. Surface finish of internal surfaces- Efficiency increases from better surface finishes are mostly attributable to the specific speed Ns (discussed in Chapter 6) of the pump.
See the illustration (Figure 3-2). To correct this condition with an opened impeller, it's necessary to perform an impeller adjustment to correct the strict tolerance between the blades and the volute. Some back pullout pumps are designed with jack bolts on the power end of the beating housing to easily perform this adjustment without pump disassembly. This condition cannot be corrected on pumps with an enclosed impeller. You need to relax the restricted discharge flow on the pump. The problem could be a clogged downstream filter, a closed discharge valve, an over-pressurized header (back-pressurizing the pump), or a Figure 3-2 32 Cavitation check valve installed backwards, or operating the pump at or close to shut-off head.