By Christopher Bonastia
Knocking at the Door is the 1st book-length paintings to investigate federal involvement in residential segregation from Reconstruction to the current. delivering a very unique research of the interval 1968 to 1973, the e-book examines how the U.S. division of Housing and concrete improvement (HUD) tried to forge user-friendly adjustments in segregated residential styles by means of starting up the suburbs to teams traditionally excluded for racial or monetary purposes. The door didn't close thoroughly in this probability until eventually President Richard Nixon took the drastic step of freezing all federal housing money in January 1973. Knocking at the Door assesses this near-miss in political heritage, exploring how HUD got here unusually with regards to enforcing rigorous antidiscrimination guidelines, and why the agency's efforts have been derailed by means of Nixon. Christopher Bonastia indicates how the Nixon years have been ripe for federal motion to foster residential desegregation. The interval was once marked by means of new legislative protections opposed to housing discrimination, unparalleled federal involvement in housing development, and common judicial backing for the activities of civil rights firms. by means of evaluating housing desegregation guidelines to civil rights enforcement in employment and schooling, Bonastia bargains an unmatched account of why civil rights regulations diverge so sharply of their ambition and effectiveness.
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Extra info for Knocking on the Door: The Federal Government's Attempt to Desegregate the Suburbs
The filing of these complaints, led by the NAACP, spurred negotiations between Marietta and the PCEEO for the contractor to abandon its Jim Crow CIVIL RIGHTS POLICIES 29 cafeteria, washrooms, and water fountains, and—more importantly—to agree to accelerated hiring, upgrading, and access to apprenticeships for African Americans. In May 1961, Lockheed president Courtlandt S. Gross joined President Kennedy and Vice President Johnson at the White House to announce a Plan for Progress in the desegregation of its work force.
In antidiscrimination laws, terms such as “discrimination,” “fair housing,” and “affirmative action” are not defined, and thus are subject to varying interpretations. One way in which housing antidiscrimination laws differ from those in employment and education is in their later passage, lagging four years behind protections in the other two areas. Antidiscrimination initiatives in employment and education did not develop much in the four years that transpired between passage of the two civil rights laws.
The final section summarizes the book’s key theoretical and empirical findings, and examines the implications of these findings for scholarship on social policy and the development of more effective regulatory policies. Chapter Two The Divergence of Civil Rights Policies in Housing, Education, and Employment The Civil Rights Act of 1964 profoundly changed federal governmental treatment of racial discrimination. ” Dirksen added, “The time has come for equality of opportunity in sharing in government, in education and in employment.