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By W.H. King

Atomic and nuclear physics are flourishing yet precise branches of physics; the topic of isotope shifts in atomic spectra is without doubt one of the few that hyperlinks those branches. it's a topic that has been studied for good over fifty years, yet curiosity within the topic, faraway from flagging, has been motivated in recent times. quickly pcs have enabled theoreticians to judge the homes of many-electron atoms, and laser spectroscopy has made it attainable to degree isotope shifts within the formerly unmeasurable parts of very infrequent isotopes, short-lived radioactive isotopes, vulnerable transitions, and transitions regarding high-lying atomic degrees. Isotope shifts can now be measured with higher accuracy than ahead of in either optical transitions and x-ray transitions of muonic atoms; this more suitable accuracy is revealing new elements of the topic. i'm very thankful to Dr. H. G. Kuhn, F. R. S. , for having brought me to the topic within the Fifties, and for supervising my efforts to degree isotope shifts within the spectrum of ruthenium. I hence method the topic as an experimental atomic spectroscopist. This bias is clearly obvious in my use of the spectroscopist's notation of lower-upper for a transition, instead of the nuclear physicist's upper-lower. My purposes are given in part 1. three and that i desire that nuclear physicists will forgive me for utilizing this notation even for muonic x-ray transitions.

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The shifts are shown (not to scale) relative to the completely ionized limit. The values are those calculated by Hughes and Eckart (1930) according to whom the only nonzero specific mass effect occurs in the 3 level. In this level the normal mass effect is shown on the left and the normal plus specific mass effect is shown on the right. 09 em_, between 7 Li and 6 Li. , for antisymmetric spin functions (singlet terms). The specific mass shifts would thus be expected to be positive for singlets and negative for triplets, exactly what was predicted by Hughes and Eckart (1930), and in agreement with experimental results.

2. The agreement with the calculated values of Pekeris (1962) and Accad et al. (1971) is satisfactory, but not if the extrapolation made by Bradley and Kuhn (1951) to the limit 2 1S-oo 1P is used. Their extrapolation is shown in Fig. 8 GHz predicted by Accad et al. {1971). ) - 's + + 5 4 3 8 £ Ill Ill 13 4 E u u 0 Ill 2 a.

There is a further, if very roundabout, way of obtaining a value in the case of barium, since the sizes of the nuclear charge distributions have been determined from the spectra of muonic barium atoms. 2 for '1Tit¥(0)1 2 (6s)a~. 8 already quoted because the screening factors have to be calculated using the same ab initio calculations. 8. 8 and the other results is not a cause for concern. 2, perhaps is. It certainly shows that we have hardly reached the 5% level mentioned by Bauche (1981). 4 nm, the 6s 2 S 112 -6p 2 P312 transition of Ba II, is -12 MHz (Fig.

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