By Steven Vertovec, Ceri Peach
The twelve million Muslims residing in western and jap (non-CIS) Europe are faced with the mixed, localised results of xenophobia, nationalism, an old stigma connected to Islam and a latest worry of the 'global Islamic threat'. In resistance, a number of Muslim teams all through Europe have constructed a 'politics of faith and group' calling for equivalent remedy of Muslim minorities within the public sphere. This quantity presents insights into those teams and actions, their histories, ideologies, companies and modes of illustration.
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Additional resources for Islam in Europe: The Politics of Religion and Community
1 Islam in Europe Estimated Muslim population in Eastern and Western Europe Total Source 244000 9889000 1990 1990 1990 1981 1991 1990 1975 1990 1991 60000 2619000 2012200 140000 250000 441900 30000 40000 1000000 6837100 5089000 53086000 79365000 9165000 56024000 13 838 000 9449000 36260000 56000000 328165000 SOPEMI (1992, Table 8, p. 135) Nielsen (1992, p. 77) Peach and Glebe (1995) German Yearbook (1991) Nielsen (1981, p. 11) SOPEMI (1992, p. 66) Netherlands Year Book (1990) Nielsen (1981, p. 11) SOPEMI (1992) Peach and Glebe (1995) 1990 1980 1990 1989 1990 62000 1500 20000 60000 78 000 221500 2548000 4739000 4200000 8255000 6366000 26108000 Albania Bu1garia 1978 Hungary 1977 Po1and 1977 Romania 1979 Yugoslavia 1988 Eastern nonSoviet Europe 1750000 750000 30000 15000 35000 2450000 5030000 2548000 8761000 10654000 37571 000 21446000 23559000 104539000 European former Soviet Union 11500000 186431000 TOTAL EUROPE 23589600 645153000 Country Date Belgium 1990 Denmark France Germany Greece Italy Netherlands Portugal Spain UK European Community Austria Finland Norway Sweden Switzerland OtherWest Europe Muslims PeachJSOPEMI (1992, p.
The second major eategory arises out of the former Ottoman Turkish empire in the remainder of eastern Europe (see Popovich, 1975; Szajkowski, 1988; Irwin, 1989). Currently this population amounts to just over 5 million Muslims. 7 million) have the largest concentrations in (non-former USSR) eastern Europe. Smaller indigenous pockets of Muslims were left in Greeee, Romania and even Austria, Hungary and Finland in the wake of post-First-World-War territorial settlements (Nielsen, 1981, pp. 12-21).
The different flows of migration have overlapped and have interacted with each other. The final two categories characterising Muslims in Europe are embedded in these same, broader processes of post-war movement. 1). France, Britain and Germany are the main countries of settlement, but as described briefly below, the size, sett~e ment histories, cultural backgrounds and ethnic identities of the main Muslim groups in each country differ considerably (see Nielsen, 1992a). French Muslims are overwhelmingly from North Africa, particularly Algeria, though with an increasing sub-Saharan West African element from Senegal and Mali.