Download Introduction to Digital Signal Processing by Roman Kuc PDF

By Roman Kuc

A textual content on electronic sign processing and electronic clear out concept for seniors and graduate scholars, it offers the most up-tp-date info on hand with computer-oriented initiatives built-in all through. It assumes previous wisdom of signs and systems/circuits.

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7 CAUSALn:Y CRITERION FOR DISCRETE-11ME SYSTEMS A system is said to be causal when the response of the system does not precede the excitation; All physical systems are causal in that they do not react until a stimulus is applied. 43) :his is true because, by definition, {hen)} is the response of a system to a unit-sample sequence, whose nonzero element occurs at n = O. For a causal system, the output cannot have nonzero values for n < 0, the time before the nonzero-valued element is applied. Causal filters are typically employed in applications in which the data samples are processed as they are received.

The various computer languages used for signal processing can be divided into two classes: those that allow arrays to be indexed starting with zero, such as BASIC and C, and those that do not, such as FORTRAN and PASCAL. In the first set, x(O) is the first element of an array, in the second. the first element is x(l). Since all languages can start indexing from 1, we will use this convention in the programs below. For computer languages that allow the array index to start from zero, a slight modification in the indexing of the programs should be made.

This sifting property will be important below in the derivation of the convolution relationship between the digital filter input and output sequences. A more convenient, but equivalent, form of Eq. 3) that is used below employs the time-reversed version of the {d(n)} ... r. -2-10 123 ... n FIGURE 2-1 Unit-sample sequence. 22 INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING (x(n)} ... ]11 I ... x k ... c. k :> n (u(n)} ... IIIIIII o n FIGURE 2-2 Sifting property of the unit-sample sequence. n FIGURE 2-3 Unit-step sequence.

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