By Lloyd Michaels
Lengthy held to be one of the world's maximum filmmakers, Ingmar Bergman formed overseas paintings cinema from the Nineteen Fifties to the Nineteen Eighties. between his many works, personality is frequently thought of to be his masterpiece and is usually defined as one of many imperative works of Modernism. The essays accrued during this quantity use numerous methodologies to discover subject matters comparable to performing process, style, and dramaturgy. additionally integrated are translations of Bergman's writings that experience by no means prior to been on hand in English.
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Extra resources for Ingmar Bergman's Persona (Cambridge Film Handbooks)
Their dual quality of reminiscence and nightmare recall the 40 BIRGITTA STEENE Strindbergian dichotomy of Fairhaven and Foulstrand in A Dreamplay, and the academic ceremony as described in the script is a travesty on the squabble among the four faculties in Strindberg's play. It seems no coincidence that Bergman concludes his filmmaking finale, Fanny and Alexander, with a direct reference - and homage - to Strindberg by having grandmother Ekdal read to her grandson, the would-be theater man Alexander, from the preface to A Dreamplay.
One central metaphor takes shape in Strindberg;s mind: the homunculus or vampire image. 10 One relatively early work of Strindberg's that dramatizes such a psychological tug-of-war is the monodrama The Stronger. The play is a contemporary one-scene quart d'heure, adhering to the naturalistic principles of the day. Its action coincides with the acting time; its location is confined to one place, a coffeehouse; its focus is on a single issue, the encounter of two women. The Stronger is typical of many of Strindberg's plays at the time in that it is set in an everyday milieu, yet quickly moves into a psychic realm, touching on the lives of two characters, Mrs X and Mile Y, both actresses.
8. Andrew Sarris, Confessions of a Cultist (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1971), 292. 9. Ingmar Bergman, Images (New York, Arcade, 1994), 65. 10. Ingmar Bergman, The Magic Lantern (New York: Viking Penguin, 1988), 7. 11. K. Hall, 1982), 8. 12. Ingmar Bergman, Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960), 21. 13. Bergman, The Magic Lantern, 169-170. 14. Cowie, 230. BERGMAN AND THE NECESSARY ILLUSION 23 15. Egil Tornqvist, Between Stage and Screen: Ingmar Bergman Directs (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press), 137.