By Flemming Ove Olsen
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Extra resources for Hybrid laser-arc welding
Four point are important to understanding fatigue: • • • • Without stress fluctuations fatigue cannot happen Fatigue happens at stress levels well below the tensile strength of the material Where corrosion is present, the fatigue strength of metals continuously decreases The crack takes measurable time to progress across the fracture face. Interpretation of the failure face can disclose the forces that caused the crack, the amount of time elapsed from initiation to final failure, the relative size and type of the load, and the Metallurgical Failure Analysis 35 Failure origin Beachmark A Fatigue zone Beachmark B Beachmark C Final fracture Instantaneous zone Figure 2-13: The crack started at the failure origin, grew for a short time, and then stopped at beachmark A for a long time.
A splined shaft subjected to alternating torsion can crack along the bottom edge of the splines, as shown in Figure 2-22c. This is another instance of a highly localized stress field strongly influencing crack development. Failures Due to Manufacturing Processes Surface discontinuities produced during manufacture of a shaft and during assembly of the shaft into a machine can become points of stress concentration and thus contribute to shaft failure. Operations or conditions that produce this type of stress raiser include: 1.
It has been estimated13 that abrasion is responsible for 50% of all wear-related failures. A typical example of abrasive wear is the damage of crankshaft journals in reciprocating compressors. Hard dirt particles will break through the lubricant film and cut or scratch the journal’s comparatively softer surface. Wear, or the undesired removal of material from rubbing surfaces, causes many surface failures. ” Adhesive Wear Adhesive-wear failure modes are scoring, galling, seizing, and scuffing. They result when microscopic projections at the sliding interface between two mating parts weld together under high local pressures and temperatures.