Download How to Gain Gain: A Reference Book on Triodes in Audio by Burkhard Vogel PDF

By Burkhard Vogel

The 34 chapters of the 2d version of the way to achieve achieve supply a close perception right into a assortment (54) of the most typical achieve generating, consistent present producing chances, and digital noise production of triodes for audio pre-amplifier reasons. those chapters additionally supply entire units of formulae to calculate achieve, frequency and section responses, and signal-to-noise ratios of yes construction blocks built-up with this kind of vacuum valve (tube). In all situations particular derivations of the achieve formulae also are offered.

All what's wanted are the information sheet valve attribute figures of the triode's mutual conductance, the achieve issue and the inner plate (anode) resistance. To calculate frequency and part responses of achieve phases the various info sheet established enter and output capacitances need to be taken under consideration too.
To calculate move features and signal-to-noise ratios for any type of triode pushed achieve degree, together with all its bias environment, frequency, section, and digital noise influencing elements, instance Mathcad eleven worksheets as an important simulation device for every bankruptcy let effortless follow-up and alertness of the respective formulae. unfastened obtain of all worksheets is assured from the editor's web-site.

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4 Noise Voltage of a Preceding Gain Stage with Output Resistance Ro [ 1X and Additional Output Resistor R0 [ 1X............................................ 5 Input Load with Resistor, Inductance, and Capacitance (MM cartridge case) ............................................................................................. 6 Input Shorted......................................................................................................... 7 Sum of the Gain Stage Input Noise Voltage.......................................................

Details see next chapter. RS: see Sect. 4. 2 Signal-to-Noise (SN) Ratio Calculations 45 In the following chapters I will demonstrate the SN calculations by all three versions. They all allow easy adaptations to other than B20k audio band bandwidths. 10 5 f [Hz] Fig. 3 A-weighting transfer function This function has a gain of exactly 0 dB at 1 kHz. 3 shows the resultant curve which is defined in B20k only! tot(f) by the magnitude of the gain G of the gain stage. Assumed input shorted, we obtain: G ¼ G0 RL Ro þ RL eN:o ðf Þ ¼ eN:i:tot ðf Þ jGj qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi eN:i:tot ðf Þ ¼ eN:rN ðf Þ2 þeN:Rgs ðf Þ2 SNne:o ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi1 0v u Zf hi u 1 Bu j eN:o ðf Þj2 dfC C Bt C B f hi À f lo C B f lo C B ¼ 20 logB C v o:ref C B C B A @ The corresponding A-weighted SN at the output becomes: ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi1 0v u Zf hi u 1 Bu jeN:o ðf Þj2 jAðf Þj2 dfC C B tf À f C B hi lo C B f lo C B SNa:o ¼ 20 logB C vo:ref C B C B A @ ð3:8Þ ð3:9Þ ð3:10Þ ð3:11Þ ð3:12Þ Giving-up the input short-circuit leads to equations that allow calculating SNs with dependency on the noise and size of the input load.

2 and based on the triode constants determination process given in the previous section we could get better results: maximum ±2 dB for the I and II type triodes only, as long as the II type’s fc becomes 1 kHz \ fc \ 10 kHz. In type II cases with fc [ 10 kHz we can expect ±3 dB. The latter result applies to the type III too. 3). All three tables include an ageing factor FA. It becomes 1 for new triodes, 1 for used low-noise examples that did not change their noise behaviour (provable) and it becomes 2 for old and used examples of unknown character.

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