Download History and Evolution of Concepts in Physics by Harry Varvoglis PDF

By Harry Varvoglis

Our figuring out of nature, and specifically of physics and the legislation governing it, has replaced considerably because the days of the traditional Greek normal philosophers. This ebook explains how and why those alterations happened, via landmark experiments in addition to theories that - for his or her time - have been innovative. The presentation covers Mechanics, Optics, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, Relativity concept, Atomic Physics and Quantum Physics. The ebook areas emphasis on principles and on a qualitative presentation, instead of on arithmetic and equations. hence, even supposing essentially addressed to those that are learning or have studied technological know-how, it could possibly even be learn by way of non-specialists. the writer concludes with a dialogue of the evolution and association of universities, from precedent days till this present day, and of the association and dissemination of data via medical guides and conferences.

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1 Mechanics 35 scientific opinions and, at the advanced age of 69, he was forced not only to renounce them, but to spend the rest of his life in house arrest. However, even at this difficult time, he did not give up research. So, he attempted to build a gas thermometer using, as a measure of temperature, the volume of gas trapped in a tube over a column of mercury. His student, Evangelista Torricelli (1608–1647), transformed this instrument into the well known barometer, by completely removing the air above the column of mercury.

If, on the other hand, the universe is infinite, every material body ‘‘feels’’ an infinite force from any direction, as is evident from the following simple reasoning. Assume a spherical coordinate system as the one we use in our everyday life, centered at the center of the Earth. Then the force, dF, that is applied to Earth from the other celestial bodies—such as stars—in a spherical shell of thickness dr, which lie at a distance r from Earth and are located in the direction of a particular latitude, # and longitude, u, will be dF ¼ GME dm GME ½qr 2 sin hdhd/drŠ ¼ ¼ GME q sin hdhd/dr r2 r2 where ME is Earth’s mass, dm is the mass of these stars and q is the mass density of the universe.

Finally, heat is the macroscopic manifestation of the random motion of atoms and molecules and, as long as the existence of such small forms of matter was not generally accepted, H. 1007/978-3-319-04292-3_4, Ó Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014 29 30 4 The Major Branches of Physics it was not easy to reject the (incorrect, as shown later) assumption that heat is a kind of fluid. Thermodynamics was developed, independently of the concept of heat, mostly by chemists during the Industrial Revolution in their attempt to understand the mechanism of chemical reactions for the production of inexpensive chemicals (mainly paints, pharmaceuticals and fertilizers).

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