By Glen M. Ballou
Guide for Sound Engineers is an entire reference for audio engineers. Written by means of a few of the most sensible pros within the box, together with Glen Ballou, Ken Pohlmann, David Miles Huber, Dr. Eugene Patronis, invoice Whitlock, Pat Brown, Ray Rayburn, Dr. Wolfgang Ahnert
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Extra resources for Handbook for sound engineers : the new audio cyclopedia
1-11 plotted on logarithmic scales. where. I is the sound intensity in watts per centimeter squared, W is the sound power of source in watts, r is the distance from the source in centimeters. I-ms delay places the delayed and undelayed signals in phase opposition. and the null results. Between nulls the signals come into phase, and double ampl1tude results. O-ms delay. Certain generalizations can be made 1. The spacing between peaks is always (lit) Hz. 2. The nulls occur when nft equals n/2. 3n/2, 5n/2, and so on.
If two sounds are in different critical bands, loudness in sones can be added directly. Let us take the same two loudness levels of 80 and 85 phons and assume they are separated in frequency by more than a critical bandwidth. First. 10 LOUDNESS OF IMPULSES Life is filled with impulse-type sounds: snaps, pops. crackles, bangs, bumps, and rattles. For impulses or tone bursts having a duration greater than 100 ms. loudness Is independent of pulse width. The effect on loudness for pulses shorter than 200 ms is shown in Fig.
Yet it is high enough compared to air to require conSiderable matching. This transformation is accomplished by the ratio of eardrum area to oval Window area, 80 mm 2 /3 mm 2 = 27. 3 to 3: 1. This gives an increase in mechanical force of from about 35 to 80. The pressure ratio required to match impedance is Y3600 = 60, which falls about midway in the 35 to 80 range. The mechanics of the middle ear accomplish the required impedance matching as evidenced by our ability to hear sounds that move the diaphragm a distance of less than one-tenth the diameter of a hydrogen molecule!