By Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof, Herbert Lichtenegger, Elmar Wasle
This ebook extends the clinical bestseller "GPS - thought and perform" to hide worldwide Navigation satellite tv for pc platforms (GNSS) and comprises the Russian GLONASS, the ecu method Galileo, and extra platforms. The booklet refers to GNSS within the familiar experience to explain many of the latest reference platforms for coordinates and time, the satellite tv for pc orbits, the satellite tv for pc signs, observables, mathematical versions for positioning, facts processing, and knowledge transformation. This publication is a university-level introductory textbook and is meant to function a reference for college kids in addition to for pros and scientists within the fields of geodesy, surveying engineering, navigation, and comparable disciplines.
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Additional info for GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and more
1). Finally, Eq. 5) follows purely from geometric relations. The proof is left to the reader. 2. 1. 0000◦ . 7012◦ . 3838◦ . Orbit representation The coordinate system e1 , e2 deﬁning the orbital plane is shown in Fig. 1. 7) µ a (1 − e2 ) µ 2 1 − . 9) The components of the vector r are evident from the geometry in Fig. 1 where √ the semiminor axis b of the orbital ellipse is replaced by a 1 − e2 . The geocentric distance r = r(E) corresponds to the norm r(E) and follows from simple algebra. The representation r = r( ) is known as polar equation of the ellipse (Bronstein et al.
On the earth, this motion is represented by a 6 m radius circle around P. The image of an instantaneous position of the free oscillating earth’s rotation axis is denoted by R0 . The period of the free motion amounts to about 430 days and is known as the Chandler period. The forced motion can also be described by a cone. In Fig. 2, this cone is mapped by the circle around the free position R0 . 5 m. The nearly diurnal period of the forced motion corresponds to the tesseral part of the tidal potential of second degree.
The satellites transmitted two carrier frequencies (150 and 400 MHz). Onto the carriers, time marks and orbital information were modulated. 2 Development of global surveying techniques 5 Receivers which could only track one of the two frequencies (denoted as singlefrequency receivers) achieved position accuracies in the 100 m range. For dualfrequency receivers, the accuracy improved to about 20 m. Some of the early Transit experiments by the former US Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) and the US Coast & Geodetic Survey showed that accuracies of about one meter could be obtained by occupying a point for several days (or even weeks) or reducing the number of observations using the postprocessed precise ephemerides of the satellites.