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Additional info for Fundamentals in Nuclear Physics From Nuclear Structure to Cosmology
2, large deformations lead to rapid transitions between rotation levels. We see that nuclei far from magic neutron numbers are deformed by of order 20%. mass nuclei. We see that for nuclei with N ∼ 100 and N ∼ 150, the moment of inertia is near that for a rigid body where all nucleons rotate collectively, I = (2/5)mR2 . If the angular momentum where due to a single particle revolving about a non-rotating core, the moment of inertia would be a factor ∼ A smaller and the energy gap a factor ∼ A larger.
E. 53). We conclude that Z0 can play no role in nucleon–nucleon binding or scattering. On the other hand, Z0 exchange plays the essential role in neutrino– nucleon elastic scattering. This is because the neutrino has only weak interactions. The use of particle exchange to describe potentials obviously has direct applications in bound states and elastic scattering. If one includes the possibility of the exchange of charged particles, we can also describe inelastic reactions, some of which are shown in Fig.
An example of a nucleus with vibrational levels is 106 Pd in Fig. 6. For this nucleus, their are groups of excited states with energies ¯ ω(n + 3/2) En = h n = 0, 1, 2..... 39) More striking are the rotational levels of 242 Pu in the same ﬁgure. The classical kinetic energy of a rigid rotor is L2 /2I where L is the angular momentum and I is the moment of inertia about the rotation axis. For a quantum rotor like the 242 Pu nucleus, the quantization of angular momentum then implies a spectrum of states of energy L2 h2 J(J + 1) ¯ = J = 0, 2, 4......