By Michael Allan Jones
Designed for college students, this certain research of the critical components of French grammar combines the insights of contemporary linguistic idea with these of extra conventional grammarians. idea is put firmly within the carrier of description and research, and scholars are guided to an knowing of the French language with a purpose to supplement the data provided by means of conventional reference grammars. The ebook comprises dialogue of verbs and verb words, voice, demanding and temper, the noun word and pronouns, prepositions and adaptations in sentence-structure. the writer can pay specified awareness to these components of French grammar which pose problems for an English-speaking reader. each one bankruptcy is through a collection of difficulties and workouts, and via an invaluable advisor to additional interpreting. Foundations of French Syntax assumes no past wisdom of linguistics, and should attract scholars and lecturers of linguistics, French and different Romance languages.
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Additional resources for Foundations of French Syntax (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics)
It is not distorted by the verb-raising process described above because the element which inflects for tense, person and number (and therefore raises to I) is the auxiliary, not the main verb. Cases of this type and similar phenomena involving negation in French and English will be discussed more fully in chapter 7. 5, we noted that the category S differs from other phrasal categories in that it does not have a clearly identifiable head. 2. In structural terms, the VP acts as a complement of I while the subject NP occupies the Specifier position of IP.
Such 29 Introduction confusion is particularly apparent in the case of passive constructions like (89): (89) L'immeuble a ete demoli From a syntactic point of view, Vimmeuble is quite clearly the subject in (89), but in semantic terms it corresponds more closely to a direct object (denoting the 'entity which undergoes the action'). To avoid confusion, some grammarians draw a distinction between 'grammatical' and 'logical' relations. Thus, in (89) Vimmeuble is the grammatical subject but the logical object of the sentence, the logical subject (the 'performer of the action') being left unspecified, whereas in the active sentence (90) 'logical' and 'grammatical' relations coincide: (90) On a demoli l'immeuble In this way, passive sentences can be characterised as constructions in which the 'logical subject' is suppressed and the 'logical object' is realised as the 'grammatical subject'.
By convention, the external argument (the subject) is indicated by underlining, while the statements underneath specify the phrasal category of the internal argument (complement) along with further information such as the choice of preposition where appropriate. 6 Complements of adjectives Verbs are not the only items which can take complements. For example, a relation very similar to that expressed by aimer in (33a) above can be described by the adjective amoureux, as in (36): (36) Marie est amoureuse de ce garcon This similarity can be captured by formulating the lexical entry for amoureux as in (37): (37) amoureux: A [Experiencer.