By Nirit Kadmon
Formal Pragmatics addresses concerns which are at the borderline of semantics and pragmatics of traditional language, from the viewpoint of a model-theoretic semanticist. This updated source covers a considerable physique of formal paintings on linguistic phenomena, and provides the way in which the semantics-pragmatics interface has grow to be seen this day.
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Additional info for Formal Pragmatics: Semantics, Pragmatics, Presupposition, and Focus
The category mutt traditionally has not been regarded as a special purpose class, but, rather, as a ‘residual category’ (Hays 1974; Hunn 1977: 57-8). Mutts are all those dogs that do not fit into named varieties of dogs such as German shepherd, poodle, pit bull, and so on. Other than the fact that all mutts are dogs, they show no perceptual commonalities, for example, such as do all beagles. Rather, things called mutt are categorically united in terms of the specification that mutts are ‘dogs that do not have varietal names’.
Consequently, it is unlikely that a Gestalt property of ‘game animalness’ could develop. The prototype ‘game animal’, then, is specified in propositional models relating to ‘mammal’ categories. Category Type 5: + A R + GM — P/E To my knowledge, no one before now has developed in significant detail an argument to the effect that some artifactual categories of natural language relate to discontinuities and, hence, have been motivated by Gestalt properties. That such a proposal has not been forthcoming is understandable in part since the utilitarian motivation of artifactual categories is so obvious.
This is not to propose that such categories are always motivated by Gestalt properties. As noted in the above quotation, a student learning to identify the corpus luteum in a rabbit ovary may begin to do so by ‘scanning the attributes’, so at first the category is defined in terms of several features rather than in terms of a single configurational property. However, objects pertaining to most categories of natural language relating to discontinuities, especially folk categories known to all or nearly all speakers of a language (as opposed to specialist categories such as corpus luteum) ordinarily do not require close scrutiny (for pertinent attributes) for the purpose of class inclusion.