By Serge A. Shapiro
The characterisation of fluid shipping homes of rocks is among the most vital, but tricky, demanding situations of reservoir geophysics, yet is vital for optimum improvement of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. This e-book presents a quantitative advent to the underlying physics, program, interpretation, and chance features of fluid-induced seismicity with a selected concentrate on its spatio-temporal dynamics. It offers many genuine information examples of microseismic tracking of hydraulic fracturing at hydrocarbon fields and of stimulations of improved geothermal structures. the writer additionally covers introductory points of linear elasticity and poroelasticity conception, in addition to parts of seismic rock physics and mechanics of earthquakes, allowing readers to advance a accomplished knowing of the sector. Fluid-Induced Seismicity is a precious reference for researchers and graduate scholars operating within the fields of geophysics, geology, geomechanics and petrophysics, and a realistic advisor for petroleum geoscientists and engineers operating within the strength undefined.
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Additional info for Fluid-Induced Seismicity
E. 64) where μ f is the friction coefficient. Note that, in the case of brittle failure of an intact rock, this coefficient is addressed as a coefficient of internal friction. 4 The shear stress and the friction force per unit surface of a fault plane as functions of the normal stress. Note that the center of the circle has coordinates (σm ; 0). Its top point has coordinates (σm ; σd /2). 18 Elasticity, seismic events and microseismic monitoring this case it is usually higher than the friction coefficient on a pre-existing fault surface.
They are applied at two differentially close points spaced along the axis x j . e. 116). is called the double couple. 115)). Such a combination of forces is called the linear vector dipole. Note that all these combinations of two force couples have resulting rotational (angular) momentum (in respect to the source point r ) exactly equal to zero. Thus we conclude that, in a general case (including also a generally anisotropic heterogeneous elastic medium), an earthquake radiates seismic wavefields as a combination of double couples and linear vector dipoles does.
83) leads to a further modification of the Mohr envelope (note that conditions τt > 0 and σn < σm must additionally be taken into account): τt = 2T0 (1 + σc /T0 ) + μ f (σn − σc ). 65). Note that this result is based on the sufficient condition of the unstable crack growth. Therefore, the result of McClintock and Walsh (1962) can be considered as a substantiation of the empiric Mohr–Coulomb criterion. 42 of Scholz (2002) is analogous to our equation above; note also a misprint in the equation of Scholz (2002): an erroneous factor 2 in front of the friction coefficient on its right-hand side).