Download Equality of Opportunity and the Importance of Place: Summary by National Research Council, Division of Behavioral and Social PDF

By National Research Council, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Center for Social and Economic Studies, Jane L. Ross, Joah G. Iannotta

The nationwide examine Council (NRC) lately performed a number of initiatives pertaining to city poverty, racial disparities, and possibilities to alter metropolitan components in ways in which have confident results on citizens' overall healthiness. In studies akin to Governance and chance in Metropolitan the US (1999), position, house, and local became vital lenses wherein to appreciate the criteria affecting chance and health and wellbeing. After the e-book of Governance and chance, the workplace of the Assistant Secretary for making plans and overview (ASPE) of the U.S. division of future health and Human prone got interested in what insights examine all in favour of position may well supply by way of enhancing the stipulations of susceptible families-a inhabitants approximately whom ASPE is very involved. due to its curiosity within the subject, ASPE supplied beneficiant help to the NRC to carry a workshop at the significance of position and to supply a record in response to the findings of the workshop. This file, Equality of chance and the significance of position, is the end result of the NRC's paintings on behalf of ASPE.

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Extra info for Equality of Opportunity and the Importance of Place: Summary of a Workshop

Sample text

3 How Place Matters The workshop on equality of opportunity featured three papers that analyzed recently collected data on spatial mismatch and neighborhood effects in metropolitan areas. This research sheds light on specific factors and mechanisms that create barriers to opportunity for inner-city residents. From this research, policy makers and coordinators of intervention programming can begin to think more specifically about how to capitalize on this knowledge to overcome spatial and place-based barriers.

Homicide as a marker of exposure to violent crime) and social resources that offer insight into racial disparities in neighborhoods. The next two sections discuss the mechanisms underlying these two particular neighborhood effects and summarize the results of Morenoff ’s data.

Second, the relationship mechanism is thought to be the most important for understanding how neighborhoods affect young children who, in theory, should be more isolated from and therefore least affected by community influences. Parental attributes, social networks, behavior characteristics, and quality of the home environment can serve as a buffer to negative neighborhood effects or can act to transmit this influence to young people who might not otherwise be impacted. Finally, the utility of these models depends on the particular outcome under investigation as well as the age of the individual for whom the outcome is expected.

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