By David J. Ewins, Singiresu S. Rao, Simon G. Braun
The Encyclopedia of Vibration is the 1st source to hide this box so comprehensively. nearly one hundred ninety articles conceal every little thing from easy vibration idea to ultrasonics, from either primary and utilized standpoints. parts coated comprise vibrations in machines, constructions and different buildings, autos, ships, and plane, in addition to human reaction to vibration. each one article presents a concise and authoritative advent to a subject matter. The Encyclopedia contains crucial proof, heritage details, and methods for modeling, research, layout, trying out, and keep an eye on of vibration. it's highlighted with a variety of illustrations and is established to supply quick access to required info. Key gains * Covers the total box of vibration with 168 unique articles written by means of top foreign professionals * offers concise overviews of key themes in terms of mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and electric engineering * presents easy accessibility to info via huge cross-referencing, unique topic index in every one quantity, and extra interpreting lists in each one article * gains hundreds and hundreds of particular figures and equations, plus colour plate sections in every one quantity
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Additional info for Encyclopedia of vibration: three volumes set
ACTIVE CONTROL OF CIVIL STRUCTURES 27 Figure 1 Structure with various schemes. (A) Structure with active control; (B) structure with hybrid control; (C) structure with semiactive control. PED, passive energy dissipation. To see the effect of applying such control forces to a linear structure under ideal conditions, consider a building structure modeled by an n-degree-of-freedom lumped mass-spring-dashpot system. The matrix equation of motion of the structural system can be written as: w x t gx t ux t hu t if t 1 where w, g, and u are the nÂn mass, damping and stiffness matrices, respectively, x t is the n-dimensional displacement vector, the m-vector f t represents the applied load or external excitation, and 28 ACTIVE CONTROL OF CIVIL STRUCTURES r-vector u t is the applied control force vector.
As a result, in spite of a more involved theory and design procedure, nonlinear vibration absorbers have received much attention lately. Although only harmonic excitations were considered here, the reader should be aware of the fact that dynamic vibration absorbers have been extensively used to attenuate other types of vibrations, such as transient and random. In such cases, the optimal design is generally carried on by using time domainbased procedures. The study and development of techniques related to smart materials represent new possibilities of vibration reduction in mechanics and mechatronics.
Lifelines, roofs) where no other means can provide adequate protection. The purpose of this article is to provide an assessment of the state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice of this exciting, and still evolving, technology. Also included in the discussion are some basic concepts, the types of active control systems being used and deployed, and their advantages and limitations in the context of seismic design and retrofit of civil engineering structures. Active, Hybrid, and Semiactive Control Systems An active structural control system has the basic configuration shown schematically in Figure 1A.