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By S. Birch

Sarah Birch assesses the effect of electoral process layout on political swap in post-communist Europe. because the cave in of communism in primary and japanese Europe among 1989 and 1991, nearly all of the states within the sector have undertaken major electoral reform. This learn strains the a number of hyperlinks among the evolution of electoral platforms and political swap and establishes styles within the results of electoral method layout on post-communist advancements.

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1998 Bosnia & H. 2000 Bosnia & H. 2002 No No No No No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Bulgaria 1990 Bulgaria 1991 Bulgaria 1994 Bulgaria 1997 Bulgaria 2001 Yes (4%) Yes (4%) Yes (4%) Yes (4%) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Croatia 1992 Yes (SMD: 6%; list: 3%) Yes (SMD: 5%; list: 5%) Yes (5% of district vote) No No No Yes No No (pre-election intended expenditure only) Croatia 1995 Croatia 2000 Czech Rep. 1990 Czech Rep. 1992 Czech Rep. 1996 Czech Rep. 1998 Czech Rep. 3 (Continued) Country State financing of parties or electoral campaigns (lowest applicable vote share threshold)* Limits in campaign spending Finance disclosure requirements Ukraine 1994 Ukraine 1998 Ukraine 2002 Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yugoslavia 2000 Yes (in proportion to No candidates elected) No * All the states in question provided at least some free media access to electoral contestants.

Nevertheless, the general popular antipathy towards these institutions and the weak ideological commitment on the part of many of their leaders made most favour electoral structures that enhanced the role of the individual politician, such as single-member districts. Conversely the anticommunist oppositions, despite the fact that they did not have strong party structures, called for electoral institutions such as proportional representation which benefited parties (cf. 13 One of the most noteworthy general conclusions to be drawn from the investigation of post-communist electoral reform was the high degree of stability of the overall shape of the electoral systems in the region.

32 Electoral Systems and Political Transformation A second distinctive feature of electoral system design in the postcommunist states is the use of mixed systems, especially of the unlinked (parallel) variety. 2 The very fact that so many of the states in the region adopted mixed systems is noteworthy; they were the initial system of choice in Armenia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Hungary, Lithuania, Russia, and Yugoslavia (as well as in Azerbaijan). Mixed systems were subsequently adopted in Albania, Ukraine, Macedonia and further east in Tadjikistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan.

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