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Maj. Abs. maj. 1 31 (Continued) Country Size of chamber Number of districts (lower + upper tiers) Number Proporof upper- tionPR tier seats seats (%) SinglePreferparty ences threshold inPR (first tier list PR seats)" voting? Russia 1993 Russia 1995 Russia 1999 450 450 450 225 + 1 225 + 1 225 + 1 225 225 225 SO SO SO 5 5 5 No No No Slovakia 1990 Slovakia 1992 Slovakia 1994 Slovakia 1998 Slovakia 2002 Slovenia 1992 150 150 150 150 150 90 4 4 4 Variable Variable Variable None None Variable 100 100 100 100 100 100 3 5" 5" 5" 5" None Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Slovenia 1996 90 100 None Yes Slovenia 2000 90 100 4 Yes Ukraine 1994 Ukraine 1998 Ukraine 2002 450 450 450 450 225 + 1 225 + 1 None 225 225 SO SO 4 4 No No Yugoslavia 2000 138 27 0 100 5 (districtlevel) No 8+1 (+2 minority seats) 8+1 Variable (+2 minority seats) 8+1 Variable (+2 minority seats) 0 Success requirement in singlemember seats Plurality Plurality Plurality Abs.

Most, however, require disclosure of campaign-related (or general) expenses, which is not surprising given that the parties are to a large extent funded by public money. Post-Communist Electoral Systems: Design and Measurement 39 Campaign finance regulations differ from many other aspects of the electoral regime in that they are more difficult to institutionalize effectively. A seat allocation formula provides a counting rule that is transparent and relatively difficult to avoid implementing without resorting to outright fraud.

They influence matters such as who competes, who wins, and how secure is their margin of victory. The economic dislocations that have accompanied the transition from state socialism in post-communist Europe have resulted in substantial redistributions of wealth. These have a significant bearing on the opportunities available to individuals and groups to engage in effective political action. One of the most important political legacies of communism is the fact that political parties were distrusted by large sectors of the Eastern European electorates in the wake of the initial transitions.

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