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By Martin Harrop

'...a very more suitable textbook, fending off many of the pitfalls of the genre...the wheat-to-chaff ratio is gratifyingly excessive, in a box with extra chaff than most...it should have been a tough e-book to write down; via any client try it premiums various stars and a 'best purchase' recommendation.' - Ivor Crewe, instances larger schooling complement '...a full of life, readable introductory textbook.' - speaking Politics

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As electorates become more sophisticated and societies more complicated, dominant parties face new problems. In contrast to communist states with acclamatory elections a 'loyal' opposition lies in wait , keen to serve as a focus of discontent. As one of the most industrialised of the developing countries, the Mexican case is proto-typical. By the time of the state elections in 1985, the PRI was in trouble. A difficult economic situation did not help and it had to resort to vote-rigging (stuffed ballot boxes which were full before voting started, failure to open polling stations or deliver ballot boxes in opposition areas, false counting, and the like) to engineer short-term electoral succe ss.

For example, in a British single-member constituency contested by Labour, the Conservatives, and the Alliance, advocates of approval voting suggest that the centrist Alliance candidate might come bottom of the poll under FPTP (because he or she was few voters' favourite candidate) yet win under approval voting (because, as a centrist, the Alliance candidate was at least acceptable to both Labour and Conservative voters while Labour voters would not approve the Con servative candidate and Conservative voters would reject the Labour candidate) .

Under the approval voting system the voter has even more votes - as many votes as there are candidates, though he does not have to use them all: he is simply asked to vote for every candidate that he finds acceptable. ) candidate. For example, in a British single-member constituency contested by Labour, the Conservatives, and the Alliance, advocates of approval voting suggest that the centrist Alliance candidate might come bottom of the poll under FPTP (because he or she was few voters' favourite candidate) yet win under approval voting (because, as a centrist, the Alliance candidate was at least acceptable to both Labour and Conservative voters while Labour voters would not approve the Con servative candidate and Conservative voters would reject the Labour candidate) .

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