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By Erik S. Herron (auth.)

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25, 2001 Mar. 6, 2005 Nov. 17/Dec. 1. 1996 Mar. 6, 1994 Russia Dec. 12, 1993 Dec. 17, 1995 Dec. 19, 1999 Dec. 7, 2003 Dec. 2, 2007 Jun. 16/Jul. 3, 1996 Mar. 26, 2000 Mar. 14, 2004 Mar. 2, 2008 Apr. 25, 1993 Dec. 12, 1993 Tajikistan Feb. 26/Mar. 12, 1995 Feb. 27/Mar. 12, 2000 Feb. 27/Mar. 13, 2005 Nov. 6, 1994 Nov. 6, 1999 Nov. 6, 2006 Nov. 6, 1994 Sep. 26, 1999 Jun. 22, 2003 Turkmenistan Dec. 6, 1992 (Khalk Maslikhaty) Dec. 11, 1994/ Jan. 8, 1995 Dec. 12, 1999 Apr. 6, 2003 (Khalk Maslikhaty) Dec.

To address the dynamics of election system design and redesign, the chapter first defines the formal rules encompassing an electoral system and subsequently reviews the literature on election rule design and change, noting the 30 Elections and Democracy after Communism? wide range of causal agents connected with this process. Next, it discusses the initial design of post-Soviet election rules and outlines institutional continuity and change over time. The chapter concludes with analytic narratives that assess Russian and Ukrainian decisions to abandon mixed electoral rules in favor of proportional representation.

C o nc lusio n As the discussion in this chapter has noted, electoral institutions varied over time, although they were characterized by a common set of electoral rules and administrative practices throughout most of the Soviet era. These formal institutions—candidate nomination via the party-of-power and groups of voters, negative ballots, single-member districts with majority voting requirements, and a multitiered election administration—could influence the choice of post-Soviet electoral practices and constitute one form of Soviet legacy.

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