By R. B. Keey and P. V. Danckwerts (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Drying. Principles and Practice
Differential heat of wetting for some substances. <24) When the enthalpy of wetting is expressed in terms of unit mass of dry material, Krischer(21) gives the following values: wool 42 to 46, wood cellulose 50 to 58, synthetic fibres 92 to 100 kJ/kg dry solid. The specific heat of moisture is less when bound that when free; values for water in the hygroscopic region have been found to vary from 2*1 to 3-3 kJ/kg °C. 10 shows graphs of the differential enthalpy of wetting against moisture content for viscose,(24) pinewood and potatoes.
7. 7. 28) where Θ is the contact angle between the meniscus and the capillary wall. 8. 8. CONTACT ANGLES 0 OF SOME MINERALS(29) 0 Material Quartz Malachite Cerite Galena Graphite Talc Sulphur 0 17 33 47 55-56 69 78 cos 0 1-000 0-956 0-839 0-682 0-574-0-560 0-358 0-208 It is convenient to consider the potential energy per unit mass (J/kg) of this column of liquid, the so-called capillary potential ITcap. This potential for a cylindrical pore is simply hg (compare the gravitational potential per unit mass which is mgh/m).
Moisture within a porous body will not present plane, but curved surfaces at the menisci in the capillaries. Since free energy is needed to stretch a plane surface into a convex one, there is a corresponding rise in the vapour pressure. Conversely, if a plane surface is pushed into a concave one, the vapour pressure is lowered. The change in vapour pressure from p° to p°c over the curved menisci is given by the Kelvin equation,(4) p°c V = 2aVL cos Θ rRT (26) where r is the radius of curvature and Θ is the contact angle of wetting.