By Werner Abraham
This booklet is ready debris within the narrower experience of the be aware in preference to the wider that means masking all uninflected phrases of a language. within the narrower which means of the linguistic time period debris may be unique among logical, or scalar debris and modal, or pragmatic debris. The semantic, pragmatic and syntactic homes of modal debris fluctuate tremendously from these of the scalar debris, at the one hand, and their homonymic opposite numbers functioning in numerous syntactic different types, however. The contributions to this quantity provide the most recent learn at the semantic, pragmatic and syntactic homes of debris within the English and German language.
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Extra info for Discourse Particles: Descriptive and Theoretical Investigations on the Logical, Syntactic and Pragmatic Properties of Discourse Particles in German
Support for such an analysis is provided by such translational equivalences as if and only if — genau wenn and by the fact that genau and nur are interchangeable whenever a focus value denotes a low value by any standard of comparison: (i) Genau/nur 5 Leute waren bei der Versammlung. ' There is, however, another difference between these two particles which is not cap tured by this analysis. The alternative values considered and excluded by genau are invariably in close vicinity to the value given, whereas the scale associated with only is not restricted in this way.
It seems that this restriction on the selection of alter natives is also responsible for the idiosyncratic syntactic constraints on the use of genau. ) genau only combines with quantifiers, interrogative pronouns or deictic expressions as foci. 7. The two different ways of expressing identity exemplified by genau vs. gerade could also be illustrated by nicht anders als, kein geringerer als vs. dasselbe, derselbe. 8. Hebrew davka also exhibits this affinity very clearly. ' 9. In examples like the following, gerade functions as a variable, but signals again identity with a variable in the preceding clause: (i) Er nimmt, was er gerade findet.
Whether John left λρ[ (p = John left ν ρ = John didn't leave) & ρ ] If we ask whether John left, we want to know which alternative in the set ( John left, John didn't leave ) is the true one. We run into trouble, however, if we consider an embedded alternative question like (42): (42) whether John left or Ede arrived which is analyzed as the following set of propositions: (43) λρ( [ρ = (John left ν Ede arrived) ν ρ = - (John left ν Ede arrived)] & ρ) To be sure, there actually is such a reading, namely, the one which corresponds to the yes-no question of the interrogative, though this 52 ARNIM VON STECHOW certainly is not the prevailing sense.