By Josef Bayer
Directionality and Logical Form offers a close remedy of the syntax of focusing debris, corresponding to only and even in a cross-linguistic point of view. The derivation of logical varieties is proven to be lower than the keep watch over, not just of the ECP and subjacency, but additionally of directionality of presidency and the actual word-order parameter that holds in a given language: head-final languages systematically disallow sure derivations or readings which are on hand in head-initial languages. the reason being that heads that deviate of their choice houses from canonical head-finality undertaking a directionality barrier. a number of innovations are explored in which this barrier could be circumvented. even if the speculation is built customarily at the foundation of the top place in German, it may be at once used to give an explanation for constraints at the scope of Wh-in-situ in Bengali and heavily comparable languages.
Audience: Syntacticians and semanticists drawn to parametric edition, in addition to linguists engaged on Germanic and/or Indo-Aryan languages.
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Extra resources for Directionality and Logical Form: On the Scope of Focusing Particles and Wh-in-situ
Even John gave his DAUGHTER a new bicycle e. *Even John gave his daughter a NEW bicycle f. *Even John gave his daughter a new BICYCLE When the particle precedes an English IP it can associate with only the subject-DP as indicated by the focus, never with a focus further down in the VP. 2, I suggested that the English IP must be excluded as an attachment site for focusing particles. Jacobs does not discuss English data, but his assumptions about German V2 clauses predicts that the German equivalents of the sentences in (36) should be grammatical.
If, on the other hand, only is applied to the VP introduce Bill to SUE, the property over which only quantifies is "Ay introduce' (b,y)". The assertion then is that if this property holds of John, then the value of y is Sue. The ultimate semantic representations are (50a) and (50b) respectively . Clearly, they are true under different conditions. (50) a. vx [introduce' (j,x,s) ~ x b. Vy [introduce' (j,b,y)- y = b) = s] In connection with the LF-account sketched above it is important to see that Rooth's proposal does not necessitate a rule of focus movement.
We have reviewed Rooth's alternative proposal of domain selection, and shown how it is able to capture association with focus without the involvement of focus movement. Rooth differs significantly from Jacobs in his assumptions about the syntax of only and even. While Jacobs stipulates, largely for semantic reasons, that with a few exceptions these particles should be allowed to attach to verbal projections only, Rooth gives independent reasons which show that only and even must CHAPTER 1 39 be able to attach to other major categories such as DP.