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By John Gero (Eds.)

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Liggett 36 (iii) a map showing the expected values of the fixed and interactive costs combined for a single criterion measure. The last map is the most valuable since it shows the expected effects of alternative location decisions on overall plan efficiency. Taken together these maps enable the designer to effectively integrate information on the cost of placement with other considerations not explicitly incorporated in the mathematical formulation. 19 shows a typical contour map which might be displayed during the decision process.

In any case, in all the examples discussed below it has been possible to compute these derivatives explicitly, even though these computations are not presented here fully. A Simple Truss Example In the spirit of Friedland's work, the first example to be discussed will use a constant allowable stress. 17) reduces to t = I IFJ i L. 3 Friedland's example 54 William R. 4 A statically indeterminate truss, constant allowable stress Shape Optimization of Structures 55 As Friedland noted, the generalized written as the gradient of the member Ν = VL or N .

4 A statically indeterminate truss, constant allowable stress Shape Optimization of Structures 55 As Friedland noted, the generalized written as the gradient of the member Ν = VL or N . 30) Here the asterisk is used to indicate the reduced dimensions of the matrices Ν and K Q caused by restricting the motions of some of the nodes. 4 show two applications of the method just described. The first example is due to Friedland and is a statically determinate structure. Note that he does not allow the points on the lower chord to move in this case.

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