By József Farkas, Károly Jármai
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Additional resources for Design and Optimization of Metal Structures
O t h e r costs, like a m o r t i z a t i o n , i n v e s t m e n t , transportation, m a i n t e n a n c e are n o t c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . S o m e t i m e s w e c a n p r e d i c t t h e cost o f d e s i g n a n d inspection, b u t u s u a l l y t h e y a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l to t h e w e i g h t o f t h e structure. C o s t a n d p r o d u c t i o n t i m e data c o m e form different c o m p a n i e s from all o v e r t h e world. W h e n w e c o m p a r e t h e s a m e d e s i g n at different c o u n t r i e s , w e s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t h e differences b e t w e e n l a b o u r costs.
D e s i g n v a l u e s o f t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d b y full-scale fire tests. T h e s e tests also s h o w w h e t h e r t h e protective material stays a t t a c h e d to t h e steel structure a n d protects it against fire as l o n g as required. 34 Design and optimization of steel structures T h e steel can b e p r o t e c t e d b y materials such as m i n e r a l fibres, g y p s u m b o a r d s , c o n c r e t e , i n t u m e s c e n t p a i n t s and water-filled structures.
M. T h e n c o m p u t e s i m u l t a n e o u s trajectories, o n e for each particle, b y p e r f o r m i n g t h e following steps. 1) A t instant k, c o m p u t e t h e fitness o f each individual particle / at discrete p o i n t xf, b y e v a l u a t i n g F(xf). 4), t h e ) , the greater t h e p a r t i c l e ' s fitness. ,M: if F(x*) if F(xf g 3) If F < < F* t h e n set g g )