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By Dr Benjamin Reilly

Reilly analyzes the layout of electoral structures for divided societies, studying a variety of divided societies which make the most of "vote-pooling" electoral systems--including Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Northern eire and Fiji. He indicates that political associations which motivate the improvement of broad-based, aggregative political events and the place campaigning politicians have incentives to draw votes from quite a number ethnic teams can, below convinced stipulations, inspire a average, accommodatory political festival and therefore effect the trajectory of democratization in transitional states. this can be a problem to orthodox methods to democracy and clash administration.

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Reilly analyzes the layout of electoral platforms for divided societies, studying a number of divided societies which make the most of "vote-pooling" electoral systems--including Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Northern eire and Fiji. He exhibits that political associations which motivate the improvement of broad-based, aggregative political events and the place campaigning politicians have incentives to draw votes from more than a few ethnic teams can, below yes stipulations, motivate a average, accommodatory political festival and therefore impact the trajectory of democratization in transitional states.

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However if no candidate has a majority of ®rst preference votes, the election is decided by simultaneously eliminating all candidates bar the top two from the count, and redistributing all available preference votes marked for one or the other of these two leaders to determine the winner. SV is thus an instant run-off system which takes place in one round, rather than the two rounds needed for run-off elections where there is no majority victor from the ®rst round. While this system has been used in a number of sub-national jurisdictions (most notably, in May 2000, to elect the ®rst mayor of London), the only national-level use introduction 17 of this system today is for presidential elections in Sri Lanka, as will be discussed in some detail in Chapter 5.

The lowest dropped out & his votes divided until someone gets a majority. With this our candidate & yours could not do each other anything like so much harm & one or other of us would win in several Reidite constituencies. Of course it must be compulsory voting for all candidates. It would be a great safety valve for both of us. What do you think? (Reid and Forrest 1989, 114) 36 democracy in divided societies Watson, whose rising Labor Party was the clear bene®ciary of vote splitting amongst the non-Labor candidates, was not interested.

5 per cent of the registered electorate in the ®rst round can stand in the second round. Whoever wins the highest numbers of votes in the second round is then declared elected, regardless of whether they have won an absolute majority or not. 16 democracy in divided societies for legislative elections in France, most former French colonies, and some parts of the former Soviet Union. The alternative vote (AV) is another type of majority system. Like elections under FPTP, AV elections are usually held in single-member districts.

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