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By Kathleen O'Neill

Decentralization is among the such a lot dramatic political and monetary traits within the previous few many years. This publication seeks to deal with its explanations, exploring decentralizing reforms in Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. It probes questions of the place and why decentralization is followed, what shape it really is more likely to absorb varied contexts, and the way it's more likely to evolve through the years. The publication develops a idea linking decentralization's adoption to the electoral matters of political events: decentralization represents a fascinating process for events whose help at subnational degrees seems safer than their clients in nationwide elections.

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Xml 32 CY560B/O’Neill 0 521 60970 8 March 16, 2005 Electoral Theory and Comparative Evidence Moreno (2003) find statistical support linking membership in nonmajority parties with a legislator’s propensity to initiate decentralizing legislation in the Colombian and Venezuelan legislatures. However, analyzing legislative behavior in the wake of executive support for decentralization is complicated by the extremely popular nature of this reform in most cases. Once the president has placed decentralization on the legislative agenda and championed it publicly, parties (and their legislators) whose distribution of electoral support may not predispose them to support it may face strong pressure from their constituents to vote for the measure.

Here, ideas alone do not lead to decentralizing innovation, but pressure from the international community to adopt these ideas sparks reform. 17 The pressure from these organizations rises 17 The international financial institutions do not usually agree on all policies, and decentralization is no exception. Given that the IMF’s mission is to deal with shortterm crises, decentralization is less attractive, as negotiating with a single government is far preferable to negotiating with several levels of government.

In the second period, the party no longer calculates its probability of winning a single election; instead, it calculates its ability to win a percentage of the decentralized power. In the equation decentralizing to the regional or local level, one need only compare the centralized system with each subnational system and choose the level of decentralization that provides the most benefit. xml CY560B/O’Neill 0 521 60970 8 March 16, 2005 A Political Theory of Decentralization 21 above there is only one election to consider; in a decentralized system, there could be thousands.

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