By Abraham Silberschatz, Henry F. Korth, S. Sudarshan
The Fourth version of Database procedure suggestions has been greatly revised from the third version. the hot version presents enhanced insurance of options, large insurance of latest instruments and strategies, and up to date assurance of database method internals.This textual content is meant for a primary direction in databases on the junior or senior undergraduate, or first-year graduate point. Database process innovations, 4th ed. deals a whole historical past within the fundamentals of database layout, languages, and approach implementations. ideas are offered utilizing intuitive descriptions, and critical theoretical effects are lined, yet formal proofs are passed over. the basic innovations and algorithms lined in Database approach innovations 4th ed. are in keeping with these utilized in present advertisement or experimental database platforms. The authors current those innovations and algorithms in a normal atmosphere that isn't tied to 1 specific database procedure.
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Additional info for Database Systems Concepts with Oracle CD
We shall use the term primary key to denote a candidate key that is chosen by the database designer as the principal means of identifying entities within an entity set. A key (primary, candidate, and super) is a property of the entity set, rather than of the individual entities. Any two individual entities in the set are prohibited from having the same value on the key attributes at the same time. The designation of a key represents a constraint in the real-world enterprise being modeled. Candidate keys must be chosen with care.
Each such relationship must, of course, have the same value for the descriptive attributes loan-number and amount. Two problems arise as a result of the replication: (1) the data are stored multiple times, wasting storage space, and (2) updates potentially leave the data in an inconsistent state, where the values differ in two relationships for attributes that are supposed to have the same value. The issue of how to avoid such replication is treated formally by normalization theory, discussed in Chapter 7.
An employee may have zero, one, or several phone numbers, and different employees may have different numbers of phones. This type of attribute is said to be multivalued. As another example, an at2. We assume the address format used in the United States, which includes a numeric postal code called a zip code. Silberschatz−Korth−Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, Fourth Edition 30 Chapter 2 I. Data Models © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2001 2. 2 Composite attributes customer-name and customer-address.