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By Larry Diamond, Marc F. Plattner, Yun-han Chu, Hung-mao Tien

The worldwide pattern that Samuel P. Huntington has dubbed the ''third wave'' of democratization has obvious greater than 60 nations event democratic transitions due to the fact that 1974. whereas those international locations have succeeded in bringing down authoritarian regimes and exchanging them with freely elected governments, few of them can as but be thought of solid democracies. so much stay engaged within the fight to consolidate their new and fragile democratic associations. Consolidating the 3rd Wave Democracies presents an in-depth research of the demanding situations that they face.

In addition to the whole hardcover version, Consolidating the 3rd Wave Democracies comes in paperback volumes, every one brought by way of the editors and arranged for handy direction use. the 1st paperback quantity, Themes and Perspectives, addresses problems with institutional layout, civil-military family members, civil society, and monetary improvement. It brings jointly a number of the world's greatest students of democratization, together with Robert A. Dahl, Samuel P. Huntington, Juan J. Linz, Guillermo O'Donnell, Adam Przeworski, Philippe C. Schmitter, and Alfred Stepan. the second one paperback quantity, Regional Challenges, makes a speciality of advancements in Southern Europe, Latin the US, Russia, and East Asia, really Taiwan and China. It comprises essays by way of top nearby specialists, together with Yun-han Chu, P. Nikiforos Diamandouros, Thomas B. Gold, Michael McFaul, Andrew J. Nathan, and Hung-mao Tien.

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Powerful memories made both P ASOK and the communist parties (legalized for the first time since 1 947) acutely aware of the potential adverse consequences of excessive elite conflict and ensured the parties' commitment to the first genuinely democratic regime in modern Greek history . Other Actors That having been said, it is also important to stress that the S outhern European consolidations did not occur in the absence of mass actors . Quiescence is one thing, absence another. On a number of occasions, the p, Nikiforos Diamandouros 15 masses did figure prominently in the strategic calculations o f the elites handling the Greek, Spanish, and Portuguese transitions ; the masses set clear parameters within which elite action could take place and beyond which it could not proceed without peril.

In this case, the regime may be unable to generate the complex social and political interactions and solidarities upon which the quality of a democratic regime depends . The result may well be a consolidated democratic regime lacking in quality. Once agai n , the S panish case lies somewhere in the middle. Even there, however, the case can be made that various problems that have recently plagued Spanish democracy (e, g . , corruption of the heads of the B ank of Spain and the Guardia Civil; the affair involving the clandestine organization GAL [Antiterrorist Liberation Groups] , which engaged in terrorist activities against the nationalist B asque organization ETA [Basque Homeland and Liberty] ) and adversely affected its quality can 1 16 Southern Europe: A Third Wave S uccess Story in part be traced back to the particular elite-mass balance characteristic of the Spanish democratization trajectory .

1 9 . Concerning the notion of "frozen democracies," see Terry Lynn Karl and Philippe C. Schmitter, "Modes of Transition and Types of Democracy in Latin America, Southern and Eastern Europe," International Social Science Journal 1 28 ( 1 9 9 1 ) : 269-84; and Terry Lynn Karl, "Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America," 1 3 . 2 0 . O n the importance o f the manner i n which the transfer o f power i s effected for the prospects for democratic consol idation, as well as for a typology of different transfers of power, see Philippe C .

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