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In h i s discussion of consanguineous m arri ages , [ Gratian] argued that such marri ages were no longer permitted because purity of b lood no longer served as the foundati on of the community ( Chodorow , 1 972, p. 74) . As Grati an sugge sted , the c onc eption of community in the 1 2th century seems to have involved the idea that mechanisms more inclusive than kinship are req u i red to cement relationshi ps in society . Between the ninth and the 1 3th century , E u rope had un d ergon e profound changes .

6) , social distance i mp l ie s that: Human beings , who are members of the same social groups and who within each of these groups have the same function , are in an identical social position . Men who differ in t he se respects from eac h other have different social positions . The greater the resemblence of the positions of the different me n , the nearer 36 they are toward each other in social space . r is the social distance bet�·een them . For Emory S . B ogardus ( 1 959) , ho we ver , the e xpre ssion social distance grows out of common-sense usage and draws upon such terms a s intimate re l at i on s , feeling distant, feel i ng near, or feel i ng far away .

These thi ngs are ascribed to ancestors as well . Further , by nature , descendant s. a fat h e r tends to rule ov er his so n s , ancestor o ve r . These friendships imply superiority of one party over the other , wh ich is why ancestors are honored (Aristotle , B ook Vlli , 1 1 , 1 1 6 1 ) . The emphasis upon generational differentiation of obligations in the family � which Aristotle ap plies in his discussion of just fam ili a l relationships , finds expression in the intestacy laws of Athens .

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