By Hugo Grotius
The heritage of "Commentary at the legislations of Prize and Booty" is advanced. whilst Grotius's own papers have been auctioned within the Hague in 1864, Dutch students stumbled on that his recognized "Mare Liberum" was once only one bankruptcy in a manuscript of 163 folios, written in justification of Jacob van Heemskerck's catch of the Santa Catarina, a Portuguese merchantman, within the Straits of Singapore in February 1603. A fashionable Dutch historian of the 19th century, Robert Fruin, persuaded the classical student H. G. Hamaker to transcribe and put up it, and the Latin textual content used to be issued in 1868. This Liberty Fund variation is predicated at the one ready by way of Gwladys L. Williams and Walter H. Zeydel for the Carnegie Endowment for foreign Peace. It combines a revised textual content and new fabric, making it a hugely appealing version of a piece that's tough to procure.
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Th. Aq. II–II, qu. 108; Sylvester, on word vindicta. e. On Anger, I. ix , II. xxxii [II. xxxiii. 1], II. xxxi , I. xvi [I. xix. 7]. f. Protagoras [p. 324 b; also in Plato, Laws, XI, p. 934 a]. g. Hierax in Stobaeus [Florilegium, IX, n. 58]. ” Such is the purport of the legal maxims, “Evil deeds ought not to go unpunished,” “Indulgence should not be shown to human wickedness,” and various similar sayings. But that other law, [the Sixth,] regarding repayment for good deeds, is characterized by an equity no less manifest.
Institutes, I. ii. 11. e. On Ends, IV [v. 11]. f. Lucan [The Civil War ], IX [575–6]. g. [Plutarch, On the Contradiction of the Stoics, ix, p. ” Therefore, since God fashioned creation and willed its existence, every individual part thereof has received from Him certain natural properties whereby that existence may be preserved and each part may be guided for its own good, in conformity, one might say, with the fundamental law inherent in its origin. a From this fact the old poets and philosophers b have rightly deduced that love, whose primary force and action are directed to self-interest, is the first principle of the whole natural order.
For no discerning person can be unaware of the consequences toward which these debates are tending, nor of the hostile wiles intermingled with them. That is to say, if the Dutch cease to harass the Spanish [and Portuguese]1 blockaders of the sea (which will certainly be the outcome 1. , in the strict sense (as in the immediately preceding paragraph, where he refers 9 Introductory remarks 10 chapter i if their efforts result only in profitless peril), the savage insolence of the Iberian peoples will swell to immeasurable proportions, the shores of the whole world will soon be blocked off, and all commerce with Asia will collapse—that commerce by which (as the Dutch know, nor is the enemy ignorant of the fact) the wealth of our state is chiefly if not entirely sustained.