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By Beverly Mayne Kienzle

Led via the instance of Bernard of Clairvaux, Cistercian priests grew to become their consciousness to the area outdoor the monastery partitions in line with the probability posed through heretical Christians, specifically the Cathars.

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Extra resources for Cistercians, Heresy and Crusade in Occitania, 1145-1229: Preaching in the Lord's Vineyard

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For example, what Bernard of Clairvaux actually preached on his 1145 tour of the Midi can only be reconstructed, because no actual sermons from that mission have come down to us. Nonetheless, some of his letters were intended for public reading aloud, and his Sermons 65 and 66 in the collection On the Song of Songs must have provided resources for preachers. For Henry of Clairvaux, Arnaud Amaury, and the early thirteenthcentury preachers, a single sermon survives, of uncertain attribution. The 1229 truce breaks this pattern; we possess four sermons of HeÂlinand of Froidmont, delivered at Toulouse in 1229.

16 I consider in this book both individual Cistercians and their society, with the intent to highlight the Cistercians as agents, authors of texts and doers of deeds who in¯uenced social structures. When Bernard of Clairvaux decided to move into the Lord's vineyard, he expressed himself clearly as an agent intending to have an impact on the Church and the world. Nonetheless, he and the Cistercians clearly felt the in¯uence of both Church and society. The impact of both can be used to minimize Bernard's or the Order's agency, letting them `off the hook', so to speak.

7±8; Paterson, p. 324. D. 21 Some scholars, however, have questioned the negative characterization of the Occitanian Church. 22 The reforms undermined the laity's sense of having a secure place in the Church and further distanced them from the institution. Moreover, the separation of the upper clerical class from rural priests and ordinary people was exacerbated by the reform movement. The aristocratic life of the bishops opened the way for the common people to admire the asceticism lived by the Cathar clergy.

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