By William B. Gudykunst
After laying out the elemental theories of intercultural communique, this publication explains the similarities and variations in styles of communique in Japan and the U.S.. The authors then display how an knowing of those contrasting styles can assist eastern and North american citizens converse extra effectively.
content material: Cultural Similarities and variations among the USA and Japan --
Language utilization within the usa and Japan --
conversation styles within the usa and Japan --
expectancies for Japanese/North American communique --
powerful Japanese/North American Communication.
summary: After laying out the elemental theories of intercultural conversation, this publication explains the similarities and variations in styles of verbal exchange in Japan and the U.S.. The authors then exhibit how an figuring out of those contrasting styles will help eastern and North american citizens converse extra successfully
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Extra resources for Bridging Japanese/North American differences
Doi argues that amae is based on infants' relationships with their mothers. Although amae is not limited to family relationships, when it occurs in other relationships it is perceived in terms of the relationship between a parent and a child. Amae involves a "trustful dependence" that nothing bad will happen if one person is dependent upon another person who has good feelings for him or her. Doi also points out that amae involves conscious awareness; that is, Japanese are consciously aware of those upon whom they depend.
Mizutani (1981) uses the metaphors of a volleyball game and a tennis match to explain Japanese conversations versus conversations in English. In English, people engaged in a conversation are like opponents in a tennis match: each hits the ball to the other person's side of the court and waits for him or her to return the ball. In Japanese conversations, in contrast, each person supports the other person by providing aizuchi, and there is give and take regarding the topic of conversation. 7 50 BRIDGING D I F F E R E N C E S THE ROLE OF STATUS IN CONVERSATIONS Okabe (1983) points out that English is a person-oriented language and Japanese is a status-oriented language.
Johnson & Johnson, 1975). Children in Japan are taught not to call attention to themselves or take the initiative verbally. Rather, they are taught to foster enryo, ritualized verbal self-depreciation used to maintain group harmony. There are two Japanese concepts that are related closely to Hall's notion of low- and high-context messages. Mushakoji (1976) contends that an erabi view of the world involves constructing messages with the idea of persuading others. The awase view of the world, in contrast, involves a speaker's adjusting to the people listening.