By Darlene Clark Hine
In Black Victory, Darlene Clark Hine examines a pivotal step forward within the fight for black liberation throughout the balloting method. She info the stairs and avid gamers within the 1944 U.S. preferrred courtroom choice in Smith v. Allwright, a precursor to the 1965 vote casting Rights Act. She discusses the position that NAACP legal professionals akin to Thurgood Marshall performed in aiding black Texans regain the appropriate denied them via white Texans within the Democratic occasion: the suitable to vote and to have that vote count number. Hine illuminates the mobilization of black Texans. She successfully demonstrates how every one a part of the African American community—from pros to laborers—was necessary to this fight and the victory opposed to disfranchisement.
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Extra info for Black Victory: The Rise and Fall of the White Primary in Texas
Some of these electoral obstacles had existed before the Voting Rights Act; others were fashioned after 1965 to deprive the newly enfranchised of fair representation on municipal, state, and federal governing bodies. Procedures such as at-large elections, instead of single-member districts, meant that in racially polarized contests, which existed extensively throughout the South, the odds of minority candidates winning office were slim if not impossible. In addition, white-controlled legislatures and assemblies had the power to reapportion these bodies in a manner that minimized the impact of the black electorate.
The labor movement among blacks in Houston included public spokespersons and network activators. White was essentially a network activator and a gadfly, whose sharp tongue and philosophy of economic parity made her very popular among workers. Her effectiveness was closely connected to the work of labor movement advance men—Richard Grovey, Sid Hillard, Sidney Hasgett, Heman Marion Sweatt, and Moses Leroy—individuals who were responsible for citizenship classes. The purpose of these classes was to teach individuals about voting rights, civil rights, economic rights, and black history.
Imbued with a determination to destroy the constitutional basis of Jim Crow, and empowered by the movement’s activities, more often than not White operated in “free spaces” without any clear standard of conduct. For instance, during her first year as secretary, White made good on her promise that she would not fit the conventional mold of executive secretary. Many of her followers, who had been members of the NAACP for decades and who looked upon the organization as an elite club, soon found White overturning traditions.