Download Bitter Pills: Inside the Hazardous World of Legal Drugs by Stephen Fried PDF

By Stephen Fried

We take our medications on religion. We suppose our medical professionals are well-informed, our drug businesses scrupulous, our FDA diligent—and our medicinal drugs secure. All too frequently we're unsuitable. simply how flawed is documented during this significantly acclaimed portrait of the foreign pharmaceutical by means of one in every of our such a lot hugely revered investigative journalists.

According to the magazine of the yankee scientific organization (JAMA), adversarial drug reactions are the fourth major reason behind loss of life in the US. Reactions to prescription and over the counter medicinal drugs kill way more humans every year than all unlawful drug use combined.

Stephen Fried's spouse took a tablet for a minor infection—and ended up within the emergency room. a few drug reactions depart in a number of hours or days. Diane's didn't. This emotionally wrenching event introduced Fried right into a five-year exam of the total pharmaceutical undefined, the main ecocnomic felony company on the planet. conscientiously documented, Bitter Pills is a full-scale portrait of tablet making and tablet taking in the US this present day, awarded during the strong human drama of medical professionals, sufferers, drug businesses, the FDA, and govt regulators as they battle for keep watch over of our medication cupboards.

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As one advances from the designs at the bottom of the table to those at the top, studies get progressively harder to perform, but are progressively more convincing. In other words, associations shown by studies using designs at the top of the list are more likely to be causal associations than associa- More expensive If done prospectively, may take years to complete Control selection problematic Possibly biased exposure data No control of confounding tions shown by studies using designs at the bottom of the list.

Washington, DC, 1980. Kimmel SE, Keane MG, Crary JL, Jones J, Kinman JL, Beare J, et al. Detailed examination of fenfluramine-phentermine users with valve abnormalities identified in Fargo, North Dakota. Am J Cardiol 1999; 84: 304–8. Kono R. Trends and lessons of SMON research. , Drug-Induced Sufferings. Princeton, NJ: Excerpta Medica, 1980; p. 11. Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA 1998; 279: 1200–5.

Confidence intervals can be calculated around excess risks as well, and would be interpreted analogously. As with relative risks, excess risks cannot be calculated from case–control studies, as incidence rates are not available. As with the other statistics, p-values can be calculated to determine whether the differences between the two study groups could have occurred just by chance. RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIALS Finally, experimental studies are studies in which the investigator controls the therapy that is to be received by each 21 participant.

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