By Thyagaraju Damarla
This booklet provides all facets of situational expertise utilizing acoustic signs. It starts off via offering the technology in the back of knowing and interpretation of sound signs. The booklet then is going directly to offer a variety of sign processing concepts utilized in acoustics to discover the path of sound resource, localize gunfire, song cars and observe humans. the required mathematical historical past and diverse type and fusion strategies are awarded. The e-book includes majority of the issues one would have to technique acoustic indications for all elements of situational understanding in a single position. The e-book additionally offers array thought, that is pivotal to find the course of arrival of acoustic indications. moreover, the ebook provides thoughts to fuse the knowledge from a number of homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for higher detection. MATLAB code is supplied for majority of the true program, that is a necessary source in not just realizing the speculation yet readers may also use the code as a spring-board to improve their very own software established software program code.
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Extra info for Battlefield Acoustics
52 5 Atmospheric Acoustics receiver z source zs ground rs=0 -zs r image source Fig. 2 Atmospheric Refraction In the previous section, it was assumed that the sound propagated in a non-refracting atmosphere over a ground surface. However, this is only true if the propagation distance is less than ∼100 m. Atmospheric refraction has a large effect on acoustic pressure if the distances are larger than 100 m, in particular, if the source and receivers are close to the ground at heights of a few meters.
Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 T. 1007/978-3-319-16036-8_5 45 46 5 Atmospheric Acoustics Atmospheric acoustics is a vast field of study. This chapter is only intended to provide some rudimentary concepts. Interested readers should consult [5, 8, 77, 81]. Sound waves are two types: (a) plane waves and (b) spherical waves. Plane waves travel in one direction in a plane. 1) where A is the amplitude and (kx − wt) is the phase, which depends on the angular frequency w and the wavenumber k.
18) The above equation is for discrete speeds in the media. However, in the atmosphere, the temperature change is not discrete, rather it is continuous, hence, the speed of the sound is also continuous. 2 Atmospheric Refraction 53 cool source shadow region shadow region warm warm source cool Fig. 7 Refraction due to temperature change a upward and b downward z receiver c2 2 c1 1 source x Fig. 19) where k is some constant, γ(z) and c(z) are functions of z. In Fig. 8, γ2 < γ1 , which corresponds to the case c2 > c1 , where the atmosphere is called a downward 54 5 Atmospheric Acoustics refracting atmosphere.