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By Nicholas B. Woodward

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Published via the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Short classes in Geology Series.

The first variation of those brief direction notes was once ready via Woodward and Boyer for the SE part assembly of the Geological Society of the United States held in Knoxville, Tennessee, March 1985, and released as Dept. of Geol. Sci. reviews in Geology, v. eleven. The Structural Geology and Tectonics department of the GSA in this case invited Woodward, Boyer and Suppe to offer a day brief direction on the nationwide Geological Society of the USA assembly in Orlando, Florida, November 1985 (v. eleven, 2d edition). we're tremendous happy in order to perform the foreign Geological Congress and feature thoroughly revised the current path notes.


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Extra info for Balanced Geological Cross-Sections: An Essential Technique in Geological Research and Exploration

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7-7,8). Using such criteria Milici [I9751 suggested that imbrication in the Appalachians occurred in an hinterlandward (west to east) sequence. For example (Fig. 7-8), he concluded that the Kingston thrust (A) is younger than the Rockwood Chattanooga thrust system and that the imbricates within each of these systems also formed in a west-to-east sequence. The OLDER D Fig. 7-7. Schematic of fault-truncationpatterns [from Milici, 19751. WOODWARD ET AL 49 - EXPLANATION THRUST FAUIT. SAWTOOTH ON HANGING WALL WNDOWS PENNINGTON - PENNSYlVANlAN KNOX-MISSISSIPPIAN LlMtSlO~ff CONASAUGA GROUP ROME 0 FORMATION ROCKWOOD-CHATTANOOGA FAULT SYSTEM KINGSTON FAULT Fig.

56 BALANCED GEOLOGICAL CROSS SECTIONS the folds and the frontal thrust to depth? First, determine the dip of the thrust using three-point solution or data from field observations. Using ....... _ . ? Fig. 8-12. Projecting faults to depth with aid of depth-to-detachmentcalculations. this dip, project the fault a short distance into the subsurface. Calculate the depth of the basal fault by applying the depth-to-detachmentmethod to fold C. Connect the surface projection and calculated position of the fault, honoring kink planes in the overlying sheet.

Superficial anticlines form over fault bend folds where strata is duplicated [from Wilson and Stearns, 19581. -r-- C GSC. Fig. 1-6. The relative widths of anticlines and synclines is a function of fault slip. Note fold spacing is a result of ramp spacing. ---i 'u -L - f I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 _ 0 S C A L E OF MILES _ 2 i- 6 Fig. 1-7. (a) Douglas [I9501 recognized that both the Livingstone thrust and its HW and FW beds were folded together; (b) Geologic section with ramps and flats in both the HW and EW; (c) Douglas also connected the shape of the FW stairsteps with the HW stair-steps to give a reconstructed trajectory for the entire thrust sheet from the Devonian to the Cretaceous [from Douglas, 1950, Gap Map Area].

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