Download Atoms, molecules and photons : an introduction to atomic-, by Wolfgang Demtröder PDF

By Wolfgang Demtröder

Creation -- the concept that of the atom -- improvement of quantum physics -- simple techniques of quantum mechanics -- The hydrogen atom -- Atoms with multiple electron -- Emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation through atoms -- Lasers -- Diatomic molecules -- Polyatomic molecules -- Experimental ideas in atomic and molecular physics -- glossy advancements in atomic and molecular physics

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Additional resources for Atoms, molecules and photons : an introduction to atomic-, molecular-, and quantum-physics

Example text

17) ϑ is the angle of the incident radiation against the crystal planes not against the normal to the planes, different from the conventional definition in optics. The distances dk between neighboring parallel planes depend on the orientation angle α of these planes against the surface planes at the cube. For a cubic crystal we conclude from Fig. 11: a a/2 Fig. 9. 18) 15 16 2. The Concept of the Atom Si atoms. 11a,b) the Avogadro number y d1 α d3 NA = N · α3 d3 = a ⋅ sin α 3 d2 x a Fig. 11. Examples of crystal planes perpendicular to the drawing plane with different separations di where the lattice constant a gives the distance between neighboring atoms.

At x = 0 is a wall which forces, due to friction, vy = 0. In summary: Measurements of diffusion coefficient D or heat conduction coefficient λ or viscosity η yield the corresponding collision cross sections and therefore the size of atoms. Since atoms are not really hard spheres their mutual interactions do not abruptly drop at distances r1 + r2 but fall off only gradually. Therefore, the different methods give slightly different values of the atomic size. depends on the velocity difference between adjacent layers x = a and x = a + Δx and on the frictional force between the molecules and therefore on the viscosity η.

2. These differences have to do with the abovementioned difficulty in defining an exact atomic radius as can be done for a rigid sphere. The real atoms experience long-range attractive forces and short-range repulsive forces when interacting with other atoms or molecules. 2. 5. 5 The Electric Structure of Atoms b r6 Various experimental investigations had already shown at the end of the 19th century that matter consists of electrically charged particles. The essential evidence came from: rm 0 r r0 ε Fig.

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