Download Atoms and materials by Kyle Kirkland PDF

By Kyle Kirkland

As our wisdom of subject grows, so too do the variety of fabrics. Metals observed early makes use of as swords, cash, and later, within the construction of airplanes. the twentieth century witnessed numerous new fabrics: plastic that's flexible sufficient to discover use in every little thing from bins to vehicles, fibers which are powerful sufficient to make bullet-proof vests, and early homes made up of wooden or stone that gave solution to the towering skyscrapers we see this present day. "Atoms and fabrics" is a publication approximately subject at its most elementary point - atoms and their elements - however it additionally explores how humans use fabric in know-how and society. This interesting identify from the recent "Physics in Our global" set complements the reader's notion and figuring out of the atomic international.

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The reduced weight would make space launches much easier, since less mass requires less force to lift. NASA already has projects under way to test and develop ships using plasma propulsion. One project, initiated in 2005, involves scientists and engineers at the University of Texas at Austin, the University of Alabama at Huntsville, and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville and the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The innovative goals are to design nozzles that can guide and direct the exit of plasma, and finding the most efficient technique to generate thrust from this type of propulsion.

As discussed in the previous sections, modern rockets burn a liquid or solid fuel to create a hot, expanding gas that propels the craft by Newton’s third law, throwing atoms and molecules out the rear nozzle to generate forward thrust. But in the future, the combustion of a fuel to produce a fast-moving gas may be unnecessary. Accelerating plasma ions by electromagnetic fields may prove to be easier, cheaper, and more efficient. The idea behind plasma propulsion is simple: Create a plasma by ionizing a gas and apply electric and magnetic fields to push the ions out of the rear nozzle.

But as the world’s population continues to increase, energy consumption keeps rising and the supply of natural resources such as oil and gas are limited. Another factor to consider is that combustion of oil and gas may contribute to global warming, whereas nuclear power does not. The question of whether nuclear power should play a role in future energy production is an open one. The physics of nuclear power is fairly well understood, but the emotional debate remains. Molecular Forces The strong nuclear force is aptly named: Although it only acts over short distances, this force is quite strong.

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