By Massimo Inguscio, Leonardo Fallani
This publication illustrates the historical past of Atomic Physics and exhibits how its most up-to-date advances permit the potential of appearing certain measurements and reaching a correct keep an eye on at the atomic country. Written in an introductory kind, this ebook is addressed to complex undergraduate and graduate scholars, in addition to to more matured researchers who have to stay updated with the latest advances. The e-book makes a speciality of experimental investigations, illustrating milestone experiments and key experimental strategies, and discusses the consequences and the demanding situations of up to date learn. Emphasis is wear the investigations of precision physics: from the selection of basic constants of Nature to checks of basic Relativity and Quantum Electrodynamics; from the belief of ultra-stable atomic clocks to the right simulation of condensed topic theories with ultracold gases. The ebook discusses those subject matters whereas tracing the evolution of experimental Atomic Physics from conventional laser spectroscopy to the revolution brought through laser cooling, which permits the manipulation of atoms at a billionth of a level above absolute 0 and divulges new frontiers of precision in atomic spectroscopy.
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Extra info for Atomic Physics: Precise Measurements and Ultracold Matter
V. L. Parry with the ﬁrst caesium atomic clock built by them in 1955 (Essen and Parry, 1955). Right) Recent technological progresses resulted in the miniaturization of atomic clocks, which are now available on the market for their integration on portable electronic devices: the picture shows the prototype of a millimetre-sized on-chip atomic clock developed at NIST. Reprinted with permission from Kitching et al. (2005). IOP Publishing Ltd. results in a fast decrease of the excitation probability and periodic revivals at multiples of 2π/T when, again, the ﬁeld and the atomic superposition rephase together.
For instance, antihydrogen, made of a positron and an antiproton bound together, should have exactly the same transition frequencies as hydrogen. If the frequencies were found to be even slightly diﬀerent, this would imply a violation of CPT invariance. Considering the extreme levels of precision achieved with hydrogen spectroscopy, a similar spectroscopic investigation of antihydrogen could constitute a strong model-independent test of CPT. In recent years striking progress has been made in the controlled production and trapping of antihydrogen.
Two-photon spectroscopy was proposed by V. P. Chebotayev and coworkers in Vasilenko et al. (1970), where it was shown that two-photon transitions induced by two counterpropagating laser beams result in spectra with very narrow and intense peaks, which do not suﬀer from Doppler broadening. This happens because of Doppler shift cancellation when the transition is driven by absorption of two photons coming from opposite directions: an atom with velocity v along the direction of the laser wavevector absorbs one photon with an eﬀective frequency ν (1 + v/c) and a second counterpropagating photon with frequency ν (1 − v/c); therefore, their sum does not depend on the atom velocity and matches the atomic resonance frequency ν0 for 2ν = ν0 .