By T. a. Littlefield
After the dying of Dr. Littlefield it was once made up our minds that I should still adopt the revision ofthe entire of Atomic and Nuclear Physics: an creation for the 3rd version, and it was once quickly obvious that significant adjustments have been helpful. i'm convinced that those adjustments might have had Dr. Littlefield's approval. The top attention for the current version has been to modernize at a minimal expense. up to attainable of the second one version has for that reason been retained, yet the place alterations were made they've been really drastic. therefore the chapters on advantageous constitution, wave mechanics, the vector version of the atom, Pauli's precept and the Zeeman impression were thoroughly restructured. The chapters on nuclear types, cosmic rays, fusion structures and basic debris were stated up to now whereas a brand new bankruptcy on allure and the newest principles on quarks has been incorporated. it's was hoping that the presentation of the final named will provide readers a sense that physics study will be packed with event and surprises.
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Extra info for Atomic and Nuclear Physics: An Introduction
2 Conduction in Gases At normal atmospheric pressure air is almost an insulator. An electric field of the order of 3 MV m -1 is required to make it conduct electricity. In a discharge tube about 1 m long containing air at a pressure of a few millimetres of mercury, and having a side limb containing charcoal cooled with liquid air, the pressure falls continuously to a very low value as the air is steadily absorbed by the charcoal. If at the same time a potential difference of about 10 k V is applied to the ends of the tube, pink streamers are observed between the electrodes.
2 elm for p-Rays The first measurement of elm, the charge per unit mass, for p-rays was made by Becquerel in 1900. The results suggested that p-rays were the same as cathode rays, differing only in that the p-electrons were travelling with much higher velocities than the cathode-ray electrons. In the following year this was confirmed by the more refined measurements of elm for p-rays made by Kaufmann. In 30 Electric field + + + + Fig. 1 Paths of IX-, p-, )I-rays in electric and magnetic fields.
This measurement was first made in 1908 by Rutherford and Geiger and by Regener. The number of ex-particles given off in 1 s from 1 g of radium was determined by placing a very small quantity of radium at a convenient distance from the window of a counter, and counting the number of ex-particles arriving in a given interval of time. The counter consisted of an insulated rod W (Fig. 5) projecting axially into a metal tube T, at the other end of which there was a mica Ta. M particle Fig. 5 A counter.